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Law the principal juror, who presides at the deliberations of a jury


George. born 1949, US boxer: WBA world heavyweight champion (1973--74); he regained the title in 1994 but refused to fight the WBA's top-ranked challenger and was stripped of the title in 1995; recognized as WBU champion until 1997
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(Russian, master), in the USSR the manager of a production section.

Depending on the size and the production structure of the department or workshop, the foreman is a subordinate of the department, shift, or intermediate section supervisor or of a senior foreman, who supervises at least three foremen. The foreman serves as a link between management and the workers. He exercises control over his sector’s basic and auxiliary workers, as well as over office workers, including accounting clerks, distributors, and storeroom workers. He ensures the fulfillment of plan targets by establishing the most rational distribution of work among the employees and determining the optimum load on the equipment. In making decisions, the foreman is guided by the current plans and production diagrams, schedule plans per unit output, routing and operations charts, equipment service data, and the skills of the workers.

The foreman uses remote-control equipment to check on equipment performance and has access to intercom devices, industrial closed-circuit television, and computers. In managing a production section, the foreman relies on organizational-administrative, economic, and educational methods. He disseminates information about new production techniques. He develops socialist emulation and participates in the review of the output norms and piecerates and of worker promotions, encourages individual workers or imposes disciplinary penalties, and awards bonuses from the foreman fund.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
More often, workers and union committeemen verbally abused or threatened their foremen and supervisors.
"with great force in the groin." In his extreme pain, the infuriated worker angrily "shoved the table a few feet and then overturned it in the main aisle, close to where several other employees were standing." When two foremen told him to "control himself," he quickly "became abusive and used obscene and profane language to both of them." When they reported him to his foreman, M.
As more and more black workers moved into production jobs, worker confrontations with foremen mirrored the seething racial tensions in wartime automobile factories.
Some workers even attempted to mitigate their disciplinary punishment by arguing that their fights with or assaults on foremen occurred away from the realm of management authority.
The cutting off of foremen's neckties was an antic challenge to a new and meaningful symbol of shop-floor authority.