(2) In formal logic
this seems fair enough but, facilitated by what may be called real-life language users, the expression meta- appears to have spread in an out-of-control fashion, as is demonstrated by the Wikipedia entry:
Forall X: An Introduction to Formal Logic
. Available online in http://www.fecundity.com/logic.
Korzybski left himself vulnerable to the logicians by denigrating formal logic
. (Tarski, whom Korzybski admired, dismissed general semantics with a few sarcastic remarks.) Obsessed by his mission of promoting the "extensional orientation," Korzybski exaggerated the pitfalls of formal logic
(especially of two-valued logic), forgetting that the pitfalls are not in the rules of inference themselves but rather in what he himself was most concerned with, namely the failure to distinguish between verbal constructs and the realities they are tacitly assumed to represent.
1.a-b is Nongeometric: it relates to our first-kind Object Proto1, but the formal Logic
we present there is general, and it holds for Proto2 also.
This paper aims to demonstrate the usefulness of formal logic
and lambda calculus in database programming.
Perreiah also tackles four additional dilemmas: (i) trying to understand Lorenzo Valla's attack on scholasticism; (ii) trying to prove that Vives has been misunderstood--Perreiah is not convinced that Vives actually made an earnest refutation of scholasticism; (iii) trying to understand the purpose of scholastic logic; and, (iv) finally, exploring "how can the seemingly unbridgeable chasm between scholastic 'formal logic
' and humanist 'informal logic' be bridged"(ix).
In addition to brief excerpts from Poinsot's formal logic
summulae, these texts contain portions of the second and seventeenth questions of the Material Logic.
The counterpart in mathematics of hypothesis-driven experimentation and conclusion is the statement of proposition (or theorem) with a corresponding proof using formal logic
. In this paradigm, the current setting (or global assumptions) and assumptions related to the problem at hand are carefully crafted and explicitly listed.
It is fair to say that relational theory is the only solid framework for establishing a rational expression of data that falls anywhere inside the boundaries of formal logic
. As people continue to laud the "death of relational" by coming up with one or other "new" physical implementations of coding or data engines, from object-oriented, XML, columnar, or anything else one might name, the primary short-coming is that these are physical implementations that avoid having any formalized logic underpinning them.
The maxims cover "the technical difficulties of the subject of intelligence, to some unhelpful psychological predispositions stemming from the oddities of formal logic
, and the practicalities of computer model building."