formaldehyde


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formaldehyde

(fôrmăl`dəhīd'), HCHO, the simplest aldehydealdehyde
[alcohol + New Lat. dehydrogenatus=dehydrogenated], any of a class of organic compounds that contain the carbonyl group, , and in which the carbonyl group is bonded to at least one hydrogen; the general formula for an aldehyde is RCHO, where R is hydrogen
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. It melts at −92°C;, boils at −21°C;, and is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether; at STPSTP
or standard temperature and pressure,
standard conditions for measurement of the properties of matter. The standard temperature is the freezing point of pure water, 0°C; or 273.15°K;.
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, it is a flammable, poisonous, colorless gas with a suffocating odor. Formaldehyde is used in the preparation of dyes, in the production of BakeliteBakelite
[for its inventor, L. H. Baekeland], synthetic thermosetting resin. It has been widely used both alone, to form whole objects, and in combination with other materials, as a laminate or a surface coating.
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 and other plastics and synthetic resins, and for several other purposes, such as in glues and adhesives used to produce laminated and composite woods and wood products. Pure gaseous formaldehyde is uncommon, since it readily polymerizes into paraformaldehyde, a white crystalline solid. Paraformaldehyde in the form of candles has been used for fumigating rooms, since it yields formaldehyde when heated. Formalin is a 40% by volume solution of formaldehyde in water, usually with a small amount of methanol (methyl alcohol) added to prevent polymerization; it is used as an antiseptic, disinfectant, and preservative for biological materials. Formaldehyde is prepared commercially by passing methanol vapor mixed with air over a catalyst, e.g., hot copper, to cause oxidation of the methanol; it is also prepared by the oxidation of natural gas. It forms formic acid when it is oxidized. The IUPAC name for formaldehyde is methanal.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

Formaldehyde

A gas used widely in production of adhesives, plastics, preservatives, and fabric treatments and commonly emitted by indoor materials that are made with its compounds. It is highly irritating if inhaled and is now listed as a probable human carcinogen.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Formaldehyde

 

(also methanal), CH2O, the first member of the homologous series of aliphatic aldehydes. A colorless gas with a pungent odor, formaldehyde is freely soluble in water and alcohol. It has a boiling point of – 19°C.

Formaldehyde is prepared commercially by the oxidation of methanol (methyl alcohol) or methane with atmospheric oxygen. Because it polymerizes readily, especially at temperatures up to 100°C, it is stored, transported, and used mainly in the form of Formalin or in the form of solid low-molecular polymers— trioxane and paraformaldehyde.

Formaldehyde is highly reactive. Many of its reactions form the basis of numerous commercial methods for the preparation of important products. For example, on interaction with ammonia, formaldehyde yields urotropine (hexamethylenetetramine); with urea, urea-formaldehyde resins; with melamine, melamine resins; with phenols, phenol-formaldehyde resins; with phenol-sul-fonic and napthalene sulfonic acids, tanning agents; and with ket-ene, beta-propiolactone. Formaldehyde is used in the manufacture of polyvinyl formal, isoprene, pentaerythritol, pharmaceuticals, and dyes. It is also used in the tanning of leather and as a disinfectant and deodorizing agent. The polymerization of formaldehyde yields polyformaldehyde.

Formaldehyde is toxic; its maximum tolerable concentration in the air is 0.001 mg/liter.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

formaldehyde

[fȯr′mal·də‚hīd]
(organic chemistry)
HCHO The simplest aldehyde; a gas at room temperature, and a poisonous, clear, colorless liquid solution with pungent odor; used to make synthetic resins by reaction with phenols, urea, and melamine, as a chemical intermediate, as an embalming fluid, and as a disinfectant. Also known as formol; methanal; methylene oxide.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

formaldehyde, methylene oxide

A colorless, pungent, volatile liquid, readily soluble in water, widely used in the manufacture of plastics and resins and as a disinfectant.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

formaldehyde

a colourless poisonous irritating gas with a pungent characteristic odour, made by the oxidation of methanol and used as formalin and in the manufacture of synthetic resins. Formula: HCHO
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Compounding the problem, formaldehyde has been shown to interfere with basic mitochondrial function.
In addition to its ability to fight destructive cross-linking caused by formaldehyde and glucose, carnosine can inhibit the enzymes that break down neurotransmitters.
The effect of board type on the emission values was found to be significant with respect to the means of formaldehyde emission of wood-based boards after 3 days of production.
The highest formaldehyde emission (1.2900 ppm) was found in the samples of 18-mm PB that were treated at 20[degrees]C for 3 hours, while the lowest value (0.1133) was obtained in the samples of 18-mm MDF that were treated at 20[degrees]C for 1 hour.
Formaldehyde is a colorless reactive chemical with suffocating and pungent odor.
Complications of Formaldehyde Injection for a Cystic Mass of the Neck.
Samples corresponding to different production batches for each of the three particleboard types were acquired from a continuous particleboard manufacturing line and cut directly after production for measuring the formaldehyde emissions and content.
Formaldehyde emission measurements with 1 [m.sup.3] chamber were performed according to the ASTM D6007-14 method (0.43 [m.sup.2]/[m.sup.3] of particleboard at 25[degrees]C, 50% relative humidity, and Q/A ratio of 1.173 m/h).
Formaldehyde mobile phase was acetonitrile 50: water 50 (v/v).
The HPLC working wavelength of diode array detection was selected carefully after general scanning of formaldehyde derivatized standard from 150 to 900 nm and the maximum absorbance was given at 355 nm.
Formaldehyde Emission Standards of Wood-Based Panel.

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