formic acid

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formic acid


methanoic acid

(mĕth'ənō`ĭk), HCO2H, a colorless, corrosive liquid with a sharp odor; it boils at 100.7°C; and solidifies at 8.4°C;. It has the lowest molecular weight and is the simplest of the carboxylic acids. Functionally, it is both an acid and an aldehyde. Like other acids, it reacts with most alcohols to form esters and decomposes when heated; like other aldehydes, it is easily oxidized. Formic acid occurs in the bodies of red ants and in the stingers of bees. It can be made by the oxidation of formaldehydeformaldehyde
, HCHO, the simplest aldehyde. It melts at −92°C;, boils at −21°C;, and is soluble in water, alcohol, and ether; at STP, it is a flammable, poisonous, colorless gas with a suffocating odor.
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; it is prepared commercially by heating carbon monoxide and sodium hydroxide to form sodium formate which, when carefully treated with sulfuric acid, yields formic acid. Formic acid is used industrially in textile dyeing, in leather tanning, and in coagulating latex rubber.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Formic Acid


the simplest monobasic carboxylic acid, HCOOH. It is a colorless, highly mobile liquid with a sharp odor. Melting point, 8.25°C; boiling point, 100.7°C; density, 1.2126 g/cm (20°C). Formic acid is miscible in all proportions with water, alcohol, and ether; it forms an azeotropic mixture with water (77.4 percent formic acid; boiling point, 107.2°C). Formic acid causes burns upon contact with the skin.

Formic acid is the strongest fatty acid. In addition to properties typical of carboxylic acids (for example, the formation of salts and esters, called formates), it has reducing properties characteristic of aldehydes. For example, upon heating with an ammonia solution of silver oxide, it forms a “silver mirror.” Formic acid is found in fir needles, nettles, fruits, and the caustic secretions of bees and ants (it was discovered in the caustic secretions of ants as early as the 17th century; hence its name, derived from the Latin formica, meaning “ant”).

In industry, formic acid is produced mainly from solid sodium hydroxide and carbon monoxide (6–8 atmospheres at 120°-150°C). The resulting sodium formate, HCOONa, is decomposed by sulfuric acid.

Formic acid is used in mordant dyeing; for the decalcification of skins in their preparation for tanning; in the production of a number of catalysts (for example, nickel-containing catalysts); for the preparation of esters, formamide, and dimethylformamide; and in the canning of juices.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

formic acid

[¦fȯr·mik ′as·əd]
(organic chemistry)
HCOOH A colorless, pungent, toxic, corrosive liquid melting at 8.4°C; soluble in water, ether, and alcohol; used as a chemical intermediate and solvent, in dyeing and electroplating processes, and in fumigants. Also known as methanoic acid.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

formic acid

a colourless corrosive liquid carboxylic acid found in some insects, esp ants, and many plants: used in dyeing textiles and the manufacture of insecticides and refrigerants. Formula: HCOOH
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Key players of the global formic acid market are BASF SE, Perstorp AB, Eastman Chemical Company, Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizers& Chemicals Limited, Feicheng Acid Chemical, Chongqing Chuandong Chemical (Group) Co., Ltd and LUXI Group CO., LTD among others.
SEM image of electrospun PS/PA6-TFAA fibers with different contents of PS-co-TMI after being etched by the formic acid (a, c, e and g) and THF (b, d, f, and h).
Effects of mixed organic acids on the volatile fatty acids in the ileum of growing-finishing pigs Item CTR1 (1) MOA1 (1) MOA2 (1) pH value 7.32 (a) 6.80 (b) 6.65 (b) Formic acid (mg/g) 0.34 0.40 0.42 Acetic acid (mg/g) 0.42 0.45 0.64 Propionic acid (mg/g) 0.05 0.05 0.04 Lactic acid (mg/g) 0.23 (c) 2.16 (a) 1.30 (b) Isobutyric acid (mg/g) 1.05 (b) 3.06 (a) 2.40 (a) Total volatile fatty acid (mg/g) 2.09 (b) 6.12 (a) 4.80 (a) Item SEM p-value pH value 0.12 0.01 Formic acid (mg/g) 0.10 0.86 Acetic acid (mg/g) 0.06 0.12 Propionic acid (mg/g) 0.02 0.86 Lactic acid (mg/g) 0.13 <0.01 Isobutyric acid (mg/g) 0.22 <0.01 Total volatile fatty acid (mg/g) 0.45 <0.01 SEM, standard error of the mean.
El-Anadouli, "Towards improving the catalytic activity and stability of platinum-based anodes in direct formic acid fuel cells," International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol.
Hsing, "Electrochemical investigation of formic acid electro-oxidation and its crossover through a Nafion[R] membrane," Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol.
Moreover, as compared to formic and propionic acids, it gives better quality fractionated product with lower % residual lignin (PRL) than that of formic acid.
Few of them including formic acid, thymol and oxalic acid (OA) have shown potential effectiveness against these mites, which have no negative effect on the development of colonies.
The median values of the serum methanol, formic acid, and lactate concentrations at admission were higher for females than for males, and the median pH value in serum was lower for females than for males.
In the hot air oven technique, the teeth were kept for three cycles of 4 hours each per day and checked in between for formic acid, nitric acid, combination of formic acid and HCL and EDTA.
[USPRwire, Tue Sep 01 2015] Formic acid is a carboxylic acid that is used as a chemical intermediate in various end-use applications.
In this study a concrete surface coated with LiNbO3 is used as a photocatalyst that can absorbs light and using that energy, it can chemically convert CO 2 and water into formic acid and oxygen.
Hypothesis: Replacing formic acid as the catalyst and the reducing agent with oxalic acid that can act only as a catalyst may lead to a selective production of substituted N,N'-benzylidene-bis-formamides.