As frequently reported, these cells yielded a higher PCE in reverse bias scans rather than in forward bias
scans, likely due to the uprising of dynamic trapping and detrapping processes of charge carriers at the perovskite/ HTL and perovskite/ETL interfaces and to ion migration that alters the interfacial energy barriers and consequently modifies their height for the carrier collection .
The forward bias
voltages are 0,1,1.1,1.2 V, respectively.
Caption: Figure 8: Equivalent circuit diagram for a p-n junction with the intermediate layer of high resistance, constructed on the basis of an equivalent circuit pin diode (a)  and a simplified scheme for direct (forward bias
) and inverse (reverse bias) connection (b).
In Figure 3(a), for unprocessed specimen, the friction force with a forward bias
voltage was larger than that without a bias voltage.
Good correlation coefficients ([R.sup.2]) obtained from ln(J/V) versus [square root of V] plots reveal that the mechanism responsible for conduction in Ag/Pc/p-Si structures under forward bias
conditions can be described by the Poole-Frenkel emission.
"We expect no action from the Fed or BOJ, although investors will be looking for a more dovish forward bias
as the renewed decline in oil prices lowers inflation expectations globally," wrote strategists at Barclays.
2(a) and (b) plot the local density of states (LDOS) of the nanowire under 2.0 V and 3.1V forward bias
As seen from Scheme 1, under forward bias
[Na.sup.+] and [Br.sup.-] ions can move through the opposite sides and the ions can pass through the interface of p- and n type gels to reach the opposite electrodes.
In other words, the threshold voltage and the forward bias
current of the diode are the determinants in the rectifier's performance as well as its leakage current in reverse bias region, which play critical roles in the performance of the rectifier circuit.
This phenomenon takes place when the LED chip is powered, forward bias
takes place at the p-n junction of the LED chip.
[3.] Breedon, Francis; Rime, Dagfinn; Vitale, Paolo (2010) A Transaction Data Study of the Forward Bias
Puzzle, Discussion Paper 7791, CEPR
HPND 4005 PIN diode is used which has low series resistance, low capacitance, occupies less space and high frequency coverage (up to 12 GHz) as compared to other PIN diodes According to the HPND-4005 PIN diode datasheet , the resistor element in forward bias
is equivalent to 4.7 [ohm] ([R.sub.S]) while the main capacitor element is 0.017 pF ([C.sub.T]) in the reverse bias state.