Enterra's software conducts both forward chaining
(given the data, what might the potential outcomes be?) and backward chaining (given a certain outcome, what possible paths through the data would explain it?) to allow an understanding of the data.
The Track & Trace system identifies the supply chain path taken by a product in the unfortunate event of a product recall and can reduce the risk in the supply chain by identifying backward chaining sources and forward chaining
recipients of products in near real time.
There are two inference methods, namely forward chaining
or data driven reasoning, as well as backward chaining or goal driven reasoning.
In this phase, all the scenarios that originate from the set of initial system states are inferred in forward chaining
. This involves the generation of new sets of hypotheses and evidences that are consequent to these scenarios.
Implication between a definite Horn formula [phi] and a definite Horn clause C can be decided by forward chaining
: mark variables in the body of C and, while there is a clause in [phi] with all its body variables marked, mark its head variable as well.
Because many of the self-contained units, like the capsule-vending and fortune-telling chicken, were "fancy Skinner boxes," the site provides an attention-grabbing introduction to basic operant concepts, including positive reinforcement, differential reinforcement, shaping, extinction, [S.sup.D] (discriminative stimulus), [S.sup.[DELTA]](S-delta), schedules of reinforcement, backward and forward chaining
, and instinctual drift.
Each problem-oriented ES run cycle consists of two phases (Giarratano & Riley, 1998): 1) first, question posing or final hypothesis determination (backward chaining algorithm), and 2) knowledge inference (forward chaining
This is arrived at through a process of forward chaining
. Given an initial state of a system represented by a set of values of its constituent concepts, an FCM can stimulate its evolution over time to predict its future behavior.
The inference procedure of this expert's program is based on forward chaining
inference rules evaluate data in an effort to determine appropriate actions to execute.
* ANY escalation intelligence or forward chaining
involves learning the sequence of component steps gradually and in their natural order, whereas backward chaining involves learning the sequence of component steps gradually but in their reverse order.