reported that both carotid and radial arterial pressure pulse waveforms could be accurately modelled using three Gaussian functions, which were considered to be associated with forward wave
, the tide, and dicrotic or backward waves .
State mode The shockwave pattern The boundary condition I forward wave forward wave
[[omega].sub.f] [[omega].sub.f] (2) (1) input flow rate [q.sub.in] II backward wave output flow rate [[omega].sub.b] [q.sub.max] input flow rate [q.sub.in] III forward wave
output flow rate [[omega].sub.f] (2) [q.sub.max] input flow rate [q.sub.in] IV forward wave
output flow rate 0 input [[omega].sub.f] (2) flow rate [q.sub.in] V backward wave (2) output flow rate 0 input [[omega].sub.b] (2) flow rate [q.sub.in] State mode Signal Traffic state phase I green Free flow-Free flow II green Free flow-Congestion2 III green Free flow-Congestion1 IV red Free flow-Congestion1 V red Free flow-Congestion2 Table 3: Fitted Gaussian distribution of shockwave speed (feet/s).
The stimulus in the fluid may result in a similar effect as the stimulation by the stapes, producing a forward wave
. This phenomenon has been demonstrated by von Bekesy  and termed as the paradoxical wave, where even if the stapes is placed at the apex of the cochlea, a forward traveling wave was still observed, moving towards the source.
The forward wave
is described by (13) with a "plus" and the backward wave with a "minus." Obviously, the angle between wave front propagation and the normal is
The pulse wave at the radial artery is the superposition of the forward wave
, produced by the heart, and the reflected wave from the aortic bifurcation at the iliac artery .
Now the gradients can be obtained by computing the forward wave
fields and the adjoint wave fields.
The dimension of the driven element is 0.1808A mm x 0.1962[lambda] mm giving 70 deg phase shift for forward wave
with the intention that wave is coupled more towards the director.
They are forward wave
modes, backward wave modes, evanescent wave modes and complex wave modes.
The challenge for a sever design is to attenuate the forward wave
over a wide range of frequencies and at the same time not letting the reflections to build up in the circuit.
Figure 8 shows Brillouin diagram of the slotted helix SWS, which is the same as that of the conventional helix SWS, so the novel helix slow-wave circuit is also a fundamental forward wave
circuit and the electron beam interacts with the zero space harmonic.
This technique uses the reconstruction property of the time reversal procedure; that is, an original wave can be reconstructed at its source point if its forward wave
recorded at another point is time reversed and emitted back to the source point.