Using three independent methods--isotope analysis of fossil trees and mosses, analysis of the distribution of lipids in fossil soil
bacteria and an inventory of ancient plant distributions--the scientists determined that although the mean annual temperature on Ellesmere Island during the Pliocene epoch (2.
The upper 7 m of the band of fossil soil
, or paleosol, contains more than 0.
They also analysed carbon isotope ratios in fossil soil
carbonates located above and below the Toba ash from three locations in central India.
These are dominated by fossil soil
horizons sandwiched together with pyroclastic lava flows, ash-fall deposits and other volcanic ejecta.
Their analysis of 1,300 fossil soil
samples from sites at or near where human ancestors and their relatives evolved shows that more than 70 percent of the sites had less than 40 percent woody cover, meaning they were wooded grasslands or grasslands.
They analyzed pollen from a marine core in the Bay of Bengal that included a layer of ash from the Toba eruption, and they looked at carbon isotope ratios in fossil soil
carbonates taken from directly above and below the Toba ash in three locations in central India.
Annie has also used fossil soils
to reconstruct the ancient environments and climates that existed during the time of the dinosaurs in Alberta.
Ancient fossil soils
could be found at just about anywhere in the part of the world, at practically every country under its river, volcano and other sediments.
However, ancient fossil soils
-- the best indicators of ancient carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere -- suggest only modest levels during the Archean.
Marty asserted that however, ancient fossil soils
- the best indicators of ancient carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere - suggest only modest levels during the Archean.
The world just went to hell at that moment,'' said Gregory Rettalack, a University of Oregon paleogeologist specializing in fossil soils
This gains added significance because fossil soils
hosting the fossils have long been taken as evidence for a marked rise in the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere at about 2.