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(chemical engineering)
Deposition on the surface of a heat-transfer device of sediment in the form of scale derived from burned particles of the heated substance.
(naval architecture)
The adhesion of different marine organisms to the underwater parts of ships, causing the ships to lose speed.
The deposit that remains on the bore of a gun after firing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the settling of aquatic organisms in water-intake pipes and on rocks and stones, buoys, underwater cables, port and other hydrotechnical structures, and the bottom of ships.

The principal fouling organisms are sessile animals and plants—for example, cirripeds (acorn barnacles and goose barnacles), bivalve mollusks (mussels), hydroids, mosses, sponges, ascidians, Sedentaria, and algae. Motile animals, primarily worms and crustaceans, settle among the sessile organisms. One of the most important components of fouling are bacteria, which generally settle first on unfouled surfaces.

The majority of fouling organisms, as a result of reproduction, produce spores or planktonic larvae, which are distributed by currents and subsequently settle on a substrate, where they transfer to a sessile way of life. Marine fouling is more varied and extensive (up to 100 or more kg per sq m) than freshwater fouling. Fouling animals generally feed on tiny food particles, which they filter out of or capture in the water.

There are many known cases of fouling organisms being extensively distributed by means of ships. For example, after the completion of the Volga-Don Canal, more than 20 species of invertebrates and algae were transferred on the bottom of ships from the Sea of Azov to the Caspian Sea, where the organisms settled.

Fouling decreases the speed of ships and impedes the flow of water in pipes leading to industrial enterprises. It also cuts down on the efficiency of cooling installations. Fouling adds to the exposure of piers and docks to the action of waves, and it promotes the corrosion of metal and concrete underwater structures.

Control measures include cleaning fouled surfaces regularly, rinsing water pipes with hot water or chemical solutions that are toxic to fouling organisms, and covering overgrown surfaces with poisonous paints.


Morskoe obrastanie i bor’ba s nim. Moscow, 1957. (Translated from English.)
Morskie obrastaniia i drevolochtsy. Moscow, 1961. (Trudy Instituta okeanologii AN SSSR, vol. 49.)
Morskie obrastaniia i drevotochtsy. Moscow, 1963. (Trudy Instituta okeanologii AN SSSR, vol. 70.)
Morskoe obrastaniia. Moscow, 1967. (Trudy Instituta okeanologii AN SSSR, vol. 85.)
Zevina, G. B. Obrastaniia v moriakh SSSR. Moscow, 1972.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in classic literature ?
To satisfy my curiosity I went around the block, and, sure enough, as I approached, at a good round speed, he got up and lounged lazily across my path, fouling my course exactly at the right moment to receive all my weight.
In maneuvering for position they were continually fouling one another, and on two occasions shots from our batteries came near to striking our own ships.
Twelve keen swords must strike simultaneously and with equal power, and each must sever completely and instantly three strands of heavy cable that no loose end fouling a block bring immediate disaster upon the Vanator.
The paddles were continually fouling one another, or being merely dipped into the water and withdrawn without the faintest semblance of a stroke made.
This did not cause any alarm among the fishermen, because up-river sailing craft are always provided with "shoes" on the ends of their keels, which permit them to slip over the nets without fouling them.
But what I contend against is the way medical men are fouling their own nest, and setting up a cry about the country as if a general practitioner who dispenses drugs couldn't be a gentleman.
specifically known as hull fouling. According to Medieval myth, once
fouling can increase fuel consumption as much as forty to fifty percent
the waters surrounding Hawaii were likely introduced by hull fouling.
International Paint has introduced two new patented, "revolutionary" fouling control technologies -- the Intercept 8000 LPP, a biocidal antifouling set to revolutionise predictability in hull coating performance, and Intersleek1100SR, the industry's first patented biocide free slime release technology.
"Designed to address the industry issues of predictability in antifouling performance not seen since the days of tributyltin and the difficult issue of slime fouling on ships hulls, the two new technologies are set to improve vessel operating performance, increase efficiency and help control fuel costs and emissions," the company said.