fountain

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fountain,

natural or artificially conveyed flow of water. In ancient Greece columnar shrines were built over springs and dedicated to deities or nymphs. In ancient Rome fountains fed by the great aqueduct system furnished water in the streets, in the villa gardens, and in town houses. Though there were few public fountains in the Middle Ages, a number of beautiful examples remain, especially in Italy, where splendid Renaissance fountains, showing the full artistic exuberance of the period, are also found even in the smallest village square or the least pretentious villa. The development of the great 16th- and 17th-century villas, with their hillside gardens and natural water sources, called forth amazing ingenuity in water decoration. In the Villa d'Este at Tivoli and the villas at Frascati, near Rome, the various disposals of water constituted an integral element of the garden composition. In France the gardens of the palace of Versailles, designed by Le Nôtre, embodied a vast scheme of water adornment, with elaborate sculptural treatment. The supply, held in a reservoir at Marly, was raised 500 ft (152 m) above the Seine by machinery. The theatrical trend of the baroque period found expression also in fountains. In keeping with the animated postures of the sculptured nymphs, sea horses, and dolphins, the water issued splashing over the rims of the uppermost bowls and down upon artificial rocks and shells. A colossal figure of Neptune was a favorite motif, as in famous examples at Florence, Bologna, and Rome. Bernini designed one such fountain in Rome. He also planned the superbly simple fountains in St. Peter's Square and the dramatic fountains in the Piazza Navona. In 1762 one of the most famous and elaborate examples was completed, the fountain of Trevi. In sharp contrast with these are the fountains of Muslim countries, which instead of gushing water often emit an inconspicuous trickle. In their gardens the water lies in quiet pools and long, narrow channels. Of the Moorish fountains employing basins and sculpture, the Fountain of the Lions in the Alhambra, Granada, is the most famous. Invariably a fountain for ablutions stands in the courtyard of a mosque. In Middle Eastern cities the public fountains are entirely enclosed within structures richly finished in marbles and ceramics and with wide projecting roofs. Examples are numerous in İstanbul, Cairo, and Damascus. The modern public drinking fountain is usually of strictly utilitarian design. American architects and landscape artists, however, are encouraging the use of the ornamental fountain with definite success.

Fountain

An architectural setting incorporating a continuous or artificial water supply, fed by a system of pipes and nozzles through which water is forced under pressure to produce a stream of ornamental jets.

Fountain

 

in architecture, a structure serving as the base or frame for a stream of water either jetting upward or flowing downward. Fountains were originally constructed only as sources of drinking water. Later, flowing water was combined with architecture, sculpture, and greenery to create various ornamental and artistic effects.

Ornamental fountains were built in ancient and medieval Western European cities, in the countries of the Middle and Near East, and in India. Fountains with statues, columns, basins, and other objects are known to date as far back as the classical period. They were favorite decorations for city squares from the 16th to 18th centuries in Europe, for example, in Florence and Rome, and in villas and palace-park complexes, notably at Versailles.

In Russia, in the 18th and early 19th centuries, an impressive system of fountains was constructed at Petergof (present-day Petrodvorets). In modern architecture, fountains add an ornamental effect that is often enhanced at night by electric illumination.

REFERENCE

Spyshnov, P. A. Fontany. Moscow, 1950.

What does it mean when you dream about a fountain?

Fountains capture a symbol of emotions and of the unconscious; they combine water with the elements of air and light, symbolizing a highly controlled and intellectualized examination of the self. Fountains are also symbols of nourishment (the fountain of life) and eternal life (the fountain of youth).

fountain

[′fau̇nt·ən]
(graphic arts)
In printing, a container or reservoir on a press that contains an ink supply.
In offset lithography, a fountain solution (usually a water-alcohol mixture) that wets the nonprinting areas of the plate.

fountain

3. See soda fountain.

Fountain

of Youth fabulous fountain believed to restore youth to the aged. [Western Folklore: Brewer Handbook, 389]
References in classic literature ?
They cast their eye down into the fountain: and now glanceth up to me their odious smile out of the fountain.
And many a one who hath turned away from life, hath only turned away from the rabble: he hated to share with them fountain, flame, and fruit.
Almost too violently dost thou flow for me, thou fountain of delight
Whoever drinks at the Forbidden Fountain at once forgets everything he has ever known," Ozma asserted.
So Glinda, the Good Sorceress, placed this fountain here, and the King drank of its water and forgot all his wickedness.
I'm going to stay here and tell my plan to Ozma alone, but if you will all be at the Forbidden Fountain at daybreak, you'll see how easily we will save the kingdom when our enemies break through the crust of earth and come from the tunnel.
The fountain was a little removed; for the street opened, where it was, into a space some ten or twelve yards square.
On seeing him, the miserable creature fell upon his shoulder, sobbing and crying, and pointing to the fountain, where some women were stooping over the motionless bundle, and moving gently about it.
The water of the fountain ran, the swift river ran, the day ran into evening, so much life in the city ran into death according to rule, time and tide waited for no man, the rats were sleeping close together in their dark holes again, the Fancy Ball was lighted up at supper, all things ran their course.
And dost thou know of a certain spot called Fountain Abbey?
Then perchance thou knowest also of a certain one who goeth by the name of the Curtal Friar of Fountain Abbey.
Up mounted David, and bowled away merrily towards Boston, without so much as a parting glance at that fountain of dreamlike vicissitude.