Post hoc comparisons showed that participants using foveal vision had the highest error rate, 4.08%, compared with 2.69% for parafoveal vision and 2.90% for peripheral vision.
These results show that physiological inequalities, such as the larger cortical area being devoted to foveal vision rather than to parafoveal and peripheral vision, do not lead to psychological inequalities.
Indeed, low latency multitask operation under disparate conditions may have very well been the principle evolutionary driver of foveal vision in the biological setting.
Research efforts at Amherst Systems and at the State University of New York at Buffalo have demonstrated how foveal vision attributes in the machine setting can significantly improve machine vision system performance.
Provins and Bell reported that the percentage of missed peripheral signals increased when the participant, using foveal vision, was required to complete the assigned task as quickly as possible.
The time interval between the presentation of the fixation point of foveal vision and the presentation of the stimulus at the periphery was randomized.
On the other hand, if good visual acuity indicates that foveal vision
has been spared so far, one can use a central fixation mark.
The preferred area for eccentric viewing based on potential acuity is between the area of loss of foveal vision
and the outer ring; however, this will reduce the field of vision available for use.
The twilight envelope approach could also be used to describe lighting conditions for workplace environments such as hallways and stairwells, where foveal vision
is needed for safety
One major contributor to the problem is an increasing reliance in feedback design on foveal vision
-- an approach that fails to support pilots in tracking system-induced changes and events while performing concurrent flight-related tasks (Sarter, 2000; Sarter & Woods, 1997).
The result is in accordance with the hypothesis of Mourant and Rockwell (1972), based on their eye movement registrations, that novices first need foveal vision
for lane keeping but, with increasing practice, learn to manage with more peripheral vision.
This interpretation agrees with the findings of other researchers, who found only minor increases in saccadic duration and amplitude when foveal vision
was obscured by an artificial scotoma (Bertera, 1988; Murphy and Foley-Fisher, 1989).