Frangula


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Frangula

 

a genus of shrubs or small trees of the family Rhamnaceae. The branches are not spiny, and the buds are without scales. The leaves are alternate and simple. The flowers, which are small and bisexual, are in axillary dichasia or fascicles. The fruit is drupelike, juicy, and globular; it has three indehiscent stones. The seeds are lenticular and unfurrowed; they protrude from openings in the endocarp in the form of a beaked little spout. There are 52 species, distributed in America, East Asia, and the Mediterranean Region (as far as the Caucasus). In the USSR there are three species. Only alder buckthorn (Frangula alnus) is widely distributed in Western Europe, the European USSR, the Caucasus, Siberia (as far as the Enisei), and the eastern part of Middle Asia. The bark of the branches and trunks of this species contains anthraglycosides (up to 5 percent); saponins, tannins, and other substances. Infusions, extracts, and tablets manufactured from its bark are used as laxatives. The fruits and bark yield fast dyes. The soft wood is used for lathe work. Frangula is an ornamental. This genus is often combined with the genus Rhamnus.

REFERENCE

Grubov, V. I. “Monograficheskii obzor roda Rhamnus L.s.l.” Trudy Botanicheskogo instituta AN SSSR, series 1, issue 8, 1949.

S. K. CHEREPANOV

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Total RNAs were isolated from SW872, SW982, HS 39.T, HS 5.T, HL-60, M14WM, MCF-7, and HT29 cell lines treated with Illicium verum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rhamnus Frangula, and Linum usitatissimum extracts.
In the latter honey, important minors were pollen from Frangula alnus and Acer platanoides, accounting for 4.9% and 4.6%, respectively.
La frangula es un laxante antraquinonico, ademas de coleretico y colagogo.
Frangula alnus had the highest importance index value of 0.53 in the shrub layer.
The glossy buckthorn Rhamnus frangula (also mildly poisonous) has bark and growth form that looks somewhat similar to the chokecherry.
Winter foods for moose normally consist of Salix sp., Rhamnus frangula, Populus tremula, Juniperus communis, and Sorbus aucuparia.
Other remarkable rare species in the reserve are a buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula), two species of common whitebeam (Sorbus aria), the bird's-nest orchid (Neottia nidus-avis), and the shepherd's cress (Teesdalia nudicaulis).
Alder Buckthorn--Rhamnus frangula; a shrub cultivated for its lustrous green leaves, which turn bright yellow in autumn.
In another contract, a woman with a Latin name, Lucia Dono, and her mother, who was a Greek religious woman (calogrea) named Phymia Sapsudena, arrange for Lucia's daughter, Frangula, to learn the skill of shoemaker from Phylipa Serigo.
(A) Coffeeberry (Frangula californica) in San Mateo County infected by Phytophthora multivora; (B) coffeeberry outplanted in Marin County infected by Phytophthora megasperma on the left, and healthy coffeeberry on the right; and (C) healthy sticky monkey flower (Diplacus aurantiacus) on the left, and plants infected by Phytophthora megasperma on the right.
Two buckthorn species, common (Rhamnus cathartica) and glossy (Rhamnus frangula), are aggressive non-native competitors in southwest Michigan.