In the corona, the interaction between free atoms
or ions with condensed matter results in the production of highly ionized species, like FeXXV [23,24], since condensed matter has the ability to maintain a higher electron affinity than a free atom
The sixteen contributions that make up the main body of the text are devoted to predication of photoelectrochemical properties of selected molecules by their structure, the dependence of some thermodynamic characteristics upon intitial spatial-energy parameters of free atoms
, research progress on carbon nanotube-polymer composites, and a wide variety of other related subjects.
Analysis of the scattered light suggests phase IV contains both hydrogen molecules and free atoms
For graduates, advanced undergraduates, and professionals in physics and chemistry, Smirnov (Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia) sets out the fundamental concepts of statistical physics and physical kinetics, illustrating them with contemporary problems for the simplest systems of bound or free atoms
The theory of the quadratic Stark shift in free atoms
has been described in detail by Angel and Sandars .
But in a vacuum - if densities are low enough to avoid condensation and if temperatures can be lowered to near absolute zero - free atoms
can be slowed down to speeds of less than one mile per hour, allowing a close examination of their nature and properties.
In ICP-MS, for example, a sample is decomposed by intense heat into a cloud of hot gases containing free atoms
and ions of the element of interest.
Since the 1950s, NASA and the Air Force have sought ways to store free atoms
within hydrogen lattices until their energy is needed.
A gas of free atoms
can get a lot colder than anyone had thought, according to recent experiments using lasers to cool atoms.