This requires cycling of millions of liters of alkaline water containing high concentrations of potentially toxic sodium cyanide, free cyanide
, and metal-cyanide complexes.
present at neutral pH will volatilize to hydrogen cyanide.
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Although free cyanide
breaks down rapidly when exposed to sunlight, the less toxic products, such as cyanates and thiocyanates, may persist in the environment for many years.
Under normal physiological conditions, tissues of cyanophoric plants do not contain free cyanide
; rather they contain cyanogenic glycosides, which upon hydrolysis by endogenous glycosidase yield free cyanide
which could be toxic to the consumer [8, 9].
At pH<9.2 free cyanide
in aqueous solution exists as hydrogen cyanide (volatile form).
Table 1 presents the analysis of total, bound and free cyanide
contents of cassava-marsh, used for formulation of the experimental diets.
This offers semi-continuous free cyanide
analyses, coupled with automatic dosage of the cyanide solution.
But sometimes free cyanide
(cyanide ions and hydrogen cyanide) breaks down slowly--for example in water that is ice-covered and so protected from direct sun.
All additional sodium cyanide beyond this is known as free cyanide
. The influence of free cyanide
is crucial as for each 1 gram per litre of free sodium cyanide increase reduces the efficiency of the solution by approximately 2%.