Consequently, calculation of [^.[GAMMA].sub.s.sup.npW], [M.sub.2[gamma]s] descends to evaluation of the transition matrix elements between the neutron |[[PHI].sub.n.sup.q] ([P.sub.n], [[sigma].sub.n])> and proton <[[PHI].sub.p.sup.q] ([P.sub.p], [[sigma].sub.p])| states of the expressions given in terms of free quark
According to Rockenbauer, measurements should have given eigenvalues of the charge operator and since that did not happen, no fractional charge could be detected excluding the possibility of observation of free quarks
This action is divergent, but the divergences can be avoided by subtracting the inertial mass of two free quarks
, given by
It is the free quarks
and gluons situation; [[alpha].sub.s] [right arrow] 0 occurs at high energy for the free quarks
Theory holds that for a brief time at the beginning of the universe there were no protons and neutrons, only free quarks
The result was surprising, since theorists had expected the matter to behave like a gas of free quarks
and gluons (a plasma).
roamed a thick broth of gluons, particles that carry the strong force.
But free quarks
in spacetime do not exist because they are confined according to QCD, forming the colorless quark-antiquark, three-quark, or three-antiquark combinations called hadrons.
This soup of free quarks
(particles that make up protons and neutrons) and gluons (particles that transmit the strong nuclear force) existed in nature for only a few millionths of a second after the Big Bang.
Some physicists still hope to find free quarks
, although the usual theory says quarks cannot be free.