freedom of the seas

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seas, freedom of the,

in international law, the principle that outside its territorial waters (see waters, territorialwaters, territorial,
all waters within the jurisdiction, recognized in international law, of a country. Certain waters by their situation are controlled by one nation; these include wholly enclosed inland seas, lakes, and rivers.
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) a state may not claim sovereignty over the seas, except with respect to its own vessels. This principle, first established by the Romans, gives to all nations in time of peace unrestricted use of the seas for naval and commercial navigation, for fishing, and for the laying of submarine cables. From the late 15th to the early 19th cent., Spain, Portugal, and Great Britain attempted to exclude commercial rivals from parts of the open sea. Protests by other nations led to a revived acceptance of freedom of the seas. One of its strongest advocates was the United States, especially in its dispute with Great Britain preceding the War of 1812. In time of peace, freedom of the seas cannot be restricted lawfully except by international agreements, such as those regulating fisheries or the right of visit and search (see search, right ofsearch, right of.
1 In domestic law, the right of officials to search persons or private property, usually obtained through some form of search warrant authorized by a court. In the United States, the Fourth Amendment to the U.S.
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). During war, however, belligerents often assert limitations of the principle in order to facilitate the more effective conduct of hostilities, and it is then that the sharpest disagreements arise, e.g., the case of the LusitaniaLusitania,
liner under British registration, sunk off the Irish coast by a German submarine on May 7, 1915. In the sinking, 1,198 persons lost their lives, 128 of whom were U.S. citizens.
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 in World War I. Subjects of contention between neutrals and belligerents include the right to seize neutral property and persons aboard an enemy ship (see prizeprize,
in maritime law, the private property of an enemy that a belligerent captures at sea. For the capture of the vessel or cargo to be lawful it must be made outside neutral waters and by authority of the belligerent.
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), the mining of sea lanes, and the exclusion of neutral vessels from enemy ports by blockade. The Law of the Sea treaty (1982, in force from 1994) established a 12-nautical-mile (22-kilometer) territorial limit for coastal nations and established an international authority to regulate seabed mining, among other provisions.


See C. J. Hill, Introduction to the Carriage of Goods By Sea (1974).

freedom of the seas:

see seas, freedom of theseas, freedom of the,
in international law, the principle that outside its territorial waters (see waters, territorial) a state may not claim sovereignty over the seas, except with respect to its own vessels.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The freedom of the seas was premised on the notion that the sea and all the resources that lie beneath it are infinite and immeasurable.
The concept of the freedom of the seas was essential to the US ability to trade freely.
The 158,000-tonne Freedom Of The Seas is four times the size of the Titanic, 335 metres long, 15 storeys high and has room for 3,600 guests.
EXPECT prices to stay at 2005 levels next year as the launch of eight ships with 18,000 berths I including Royal Caribbean Cruise LinesO Freedom of the Seas, with ice rink, surfing facility and climbing wall I creates competition between operators.
cruise A 7nt cruise on Royal Caribbean's Freedom of the Seas from Port Canaveral, Florida, to CocoCay, St Thomas and St Maarten, with a hotel stay at Pointe Orlando.
Leaving an exciting few days behind me, it was time to head to Port Canaveral to board RCI's Freedom of the Seas.
HERE'S your chance to win a fantastic Caribbean cruise for two people, sharing an exclusive ocean-view stateroom with balcony aboard the fabulous Freedom of the Seas.
Includes economy class return flights from winner's nearest major UK airport (subject to availability) to Orlando, Florida, transfers, pre-hotel in Orlando, seven-night cruise onboard Freedom of the Seas sharing an Oceanview balcony stateroom on full board basis, evening entertainment, applicable taxes excluding gratuities.
Oasis of the Seas, Freedom of the Seas, Carnival Dream and Carnival liberty all cancelled calls at Charlotte Amalie on St Thomas.

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