Freedom Riders

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See also: National Parks and Monuments (table)National Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 49,075 (19,868) Mountain and coast scenery.
..... Click the link for more information.

Freedom Riders,

American civil-rights demonstrators who engaged (1961) in nonviolent protests against segregation of public interstate buses and terminals in the South. From the 1940s several federal court decisions and an Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) order had ruled against such segregation. Nonetheless, it remained a fact of life in buses, trains, and terminals throughout the South. In May, 1961, 13 Freedom Rider volunteers, seven black, six white, and nearly all young, were recruited by the Congress of Racial EqualityCongress of Racial Equality
(CORE), civil-rights organization founded (1942) in Chicago by James Farmer. Dedicated to the use of nonviolent direct action, CORE initially sought to promote better race relations and end racial discrimination in the United States.
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 (CORE) to challenge state Jim Crow laws by riding buses together into the Deep South. Two buses set out to take them from Washington, D.C., to New Orleans. Serious violence erupted in Alabama when one bus was firebombed near Anniston, and riders in the other were badly beaten in Birmingham. The Freedom Riders National Monument (est. 2017) commemorates the events in Alabama (see National Parks and MonumentsNational Parks and Monuments

National Parks
Name Type1 Location Year authorized Size
acres (hectares)
Description
Acadia NP SE Maine 1919 49,075 (19,868) Mountain and coast scenery.
..... Click the link for more information.
, table). While the original riders were forced to fly to New Orleans, waves of successive protesters followed them to integrate Southern buses. Many were injured, many forced to take refuge in local churches, and some 300 were arrested and held in Southern jails. Federal marshalls were sent to Montgomery and martial law was declared in the state. More riders continued to arrive, and within six months the Kennedy administration had taken action and the Freedom Rider movement had succeeded. The ICC outlawed segregation in interstate travel, the Supreme Court voided state segregation laws in public transportation, and segregation of such facilities in the South came to an end.

Bibliography

See J. Peck, Freedom Ride (1962); D. Halberstam, The Children (1998); R. Arsenault, Freedom Riders (2006); B. Watson, Freedom Summer (2010).

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References in periodicals archive ?
The sold-out event celebrated the legacy of the 1961 Freedom Riders and contrasted that movement with the modern movements for social justice and racial equality.
A screening area for a documentary on the Freedom Riders, narrated by Jeffrey Wright, is tucked behind the bus facade and features old school-bus benches on which the audience can sit.
In May, when the first Freedom Riders, whose trip began in Washington, were assaulted in Alabama and too severely injured to continue their journey, Seigenthaler was dispatched by the president and attorney general to Birmingham to escort the "Riders" by commercial airlines to their destination: New Orleans.
Like the title character of Meridian, Alice Walker's 1976 novel about the Civil Rights Movement, Covington's Freedom Rider character represents a double threat to the white-male establishment because she is black and female.
Inspired by the '60s' Freedom Riders, 33 young LGBT activists on a bus are invading the nation's antigay colleges.
A native of New Orleans, Judge Smith commented years later, "Many of us who grew up in the South during the time of segregation grew up with the idea that life as we then knew it was not consistent with American ideals or principles and we vowed to change that way of life." Looking back, he also wrote that he was pleased to have been a Freedom Rider, joining a journey and a movement of nonviolence that helped spur litigation and ensure court decisions against segregation, and which ultimately led to all the civil rights legislation at the federal and state levels that has made the lives of all Americans better and, in fact, the lives of many outside the United States through the example our laws have set for their own countries.
Philip Randolph; Hosea Williams; former slaves; Presidents Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy and Johnson; Arkansas high-school students; North Carolina college students; a freedom rider beaten in Birmingham; white publisher James H.
Check out the latest entry in my blog, Freedom Rider, at www.freedomrider.blogspot.com.
In the words of former Freedom Rider and Congressional Black Caucus member John Lewis, "The most important purpose of this ride is to establish a coalition of conscience."
Freedom Ride: A freedom rider remembers may be her best and most important legacy yet.
If you braved Chicago's heat wave and attended the Abilities Expo in July, you might have been among the crowds of people intrigued by another innovative mobility concept: Vestil's Freedom Rider multidirectional wheelchair.
Willoughby has been a pastor, teacher, and social activist for fifty years, with particular involvement as a freedom rider, a Vietnam War demonstrator, and a gay rights advocate.