freezing


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Related to freezing: freezing cold

freezing,

change of a substance from the liquid to the solid state. The temperature at which freezing occurs for a pure crystalline solid is called the freezing point and is a characteristic of the particular substance. The reverse process, the change of a solid to a liquid, is called melting. See melting pointmelting point,
temperature at which a substance changes its state from solid to liquid. Under standard atmospheric pressure different pure crystalline solids will each melt at a different specific temperature; thus melting point is a characteristic of a substance and can be used
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; refrigerationrefrigeration,
process for drawing heat from substances to lower their temperature, often for purposes of preservation. Refrigeration in its modern, portable form also depends on insulating materials that are thin yet effective.
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abend

(ABnormal END) Pronounced "ab-end." An abend is an unexpected termination that causes the computer, smartphone or tablet to stop responding. The abend occurs either when the processor is presented with instructions or data it cannot recognize, or a program tries to address memory beyond a defined boundary. Abends are generally the result of erroneous software logic in the application or operating system (see anomaly).

Crash, Freeze, Lock Up and Hang
A "crash" occurs when the computer issues a "fault" and deliberately halts that line of execution. The terms "freeze," "lock up" or "hang" may refer to software that is actually still running but has erroneously wound up in an endless, internal loop that renders the program useless. In practice, the terms "crash," "freeze," "lock up" and "hang" are used synonymously. See infinite loop.

Bad Hardware Can Look Like Bad Software
A serious hardware failure will stop a computer-based device that has no redundant components. For example, a short circuit on the motherboard will halt the operation; however, a failing memory cell can cause an instruction to point to an erroneous location, making it look like a software failure.

It Depends on the OS
If the abend occurs due to a bug in an application and the operating system is not resilient, the computer locks up and has to be rebooted. Modern operating systems attempt to halt only the offending application and allow the remaining applications to continue. As operating systems evolve through the years, they become more bug-free themselves and more tolerant of application bugs. However, all operating systems are not 100% foolproof, and bad applications do cause operating systems to crash; a major motivation for virtualizing computers (see virtualization and virtual machine).

A Miracle It All Works
If you consider what goes on inside a computer, you might wonder why it does not crash more often. An ordinary home computer can easily have 64 billion memory (RAM) cells. Every second, millions of them switch their status between charged and uncharged (1 to 0; 0 to 1). If only one cell fails, it can cause an instruction to be invalid, and an abend can occur. See head crash, GPF, active area and transistor concept.



Abending
The green blocks are machine instructions executed by the CPU one after the other until a branch (jump) instruction breaks the sequence and points to an instruction elsewhere in the program. Abending (crashing, hanging, etc.) occurs when the program erroneously points outside of its address space, typically due to bad logic.
References in periodicals archive ?
In this study, a local ground freezing system was developed as a first step to establish undisturbed sampling system of granular materials, and the developed system was evaluated in laboratory-scale soil samples and further on field.
* Always separate meat portions before freezing them so that you can defrost them individually and prevent further wastage
Instead of freezing the meat exactly as-is, take the meat off of the Styrofoam and freeze it separately in a freezer bag.
Cauliflower and calabrese can also be frozen, and the best way is to remove the largest stalks and separate into florets, freezing on metal trays before transferring to a bag.
CAS offers what freezing promised in 1834: perfect preservation of food over long periods of time.
Because of the soft and weak stratum, several methods of improving soil have been used at the entrance of Zhang Fuyuan southern shield tunnel (Yang et al., 2003) and in five out of six corridors of line #1, but all was failing, only the freezing method succeeds to reconstruct and guarantee the safety.
Also, the freezing temperatures make the glass more brittle.
Part I Freezing principles: Freezing processes: Physical aspects; Principles of freeze-concentration and freeze-drying; Principles of frozen storage; Frozen food packaging.
* Freezing. To halt deterioration, it's essential that documents be frozen within 48 hours.
The origin and progression of freezing in turfgrasses is unknown and the information could be useful for developing improved management practices or cold-tolerant cultivars.
(Tokyo, Japan) has patented a method for preparing baker's yeast having both freezing tolerance and drying tolerance, which comprises drying pressed raw yeast suitable to baking from frozen dough, and screening it for instant dry yeast not interfering with its aptitude for frozen dough.
Although measures are taken with uniform thickness castings to ensure proper freezing, there is no assurance that freezing will start at points furthest from the gate and progress in an orderly manner to the gate so that the volume of metal lost because of shrinkage can be replaced by the riser designed for that purpose.