Oral manifestations which may be seen include malocclusion, labiogingival adherences, gingival hypertrophy, accessory labiogingival frenula
, serrated incisal margins, dental transposition, diastema, conical teeth, enamel hypoplasia, hypodontia, and teeth erupted or exfoliated prematurely, which were present in our patient too.
In the present case, acromesomelia (relative shortening of distal and middle segments of the limbs), short stature, postaxial polydactyly of hands, hypoplastic and deformed nails and toes, and multiple frenula
of lower lip were present.
Other facial/oral manifestations are ocular hypertelorism, aplasia of alar cartilage and alopecia, hypertrophic frenula, lingual hamartomas and ankyloglossia, dental caries, enamel hypoplasia, supernumerary and missing teeth.
Cosmetic surgery for cleft lip and palate, tongue nodule and accessory frenula is usually required.
Oral-facial-digital syndrome II (Mohr syndrome) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by bilateral polysyndactylia of the halluces, bilateral hexadactylia of the hands, lobed tongue, and multiple oral frenula
and peculiar facies .
Aerophagia Induced Reflux in Breastfeeding Infants With Ankyloglossia and Shortened Maxillary Labial Frenula
(Tongue and Lip Tie).
On the other hand, tubulin-immunoreactive nerve networks are found throughout the subumbrellar areas containing swim musculature, including the subumbrella proper, the velarium, and the velarial frenula
Absence of the inferior labial and lingual frenula
in Eblers-Danlos syndrome.
Ankyloglossia (tongue tie): This is characterized by shortness of the lingual frenula
, which thus restricts movements of the tongue.
In another study , a predominance of short frenula
(60%) over the other classifications was also found.
Four morphological features set the cubomedusan velarium apart from the hydrozoan velum and suggest that the velarium is derived from scyphozoan-like marginal lobes (Conant, 1898; Gladfelter, 1973): (1) the velarium is penetrated by gastric canals (never in the velum); (2) swim musculature of the velarium is continuous with that of the subumbrella; (3) the velarium, unlike the velum, does not possess exumbrellar radial muscle; (4) four bracket-like frenula
support the velarium in the perradii.
Moreover, we found that Sclerolinum brattstromi is closely allied to the vestimentiferans, and does not occupy a position basal to a frenulate-vestimentiferan clade, confirming Ivanov's (1991; 1994; Ivanov and Selivanova, 1992) ideas that moniliferans occupy a position intermediate between vestimentiferans and frenula