In addition, a frequency offset
with a random carrier frequency is applied to each signal.
The key issue is how to estimate the frequency offset
, time delay, amplitude and phase offset.
The phase noise of the proposed VCO is 20 dB lower than that in  for the same basic design structure and at the same frequency offset
By using a tiny frequency offset
among antenna elements, FDA can achieve an angle-range-dependent beamforming .
In the FDA antenna, we have uniform amplitude weightings and/or nonuniform weightings and uniform frequency offsets
and nonuniform frequency offset
f is the frequency offset
. 2[pi]([T.sub.[DELTA]] + T')f denotes the compensation for group delay.
In order to design an accurate system, time and frequency offset
algorithms in  are used.
For the OFDM modulation, the normalized frequency offset
factor is used to measure frequency offset
A problem that can arise from this technique is the assignment of the upper and lower integration frequency offset
where P[(f).sub.DVBT] is DVB-T signal spectrum mask, P[(f).sub.LTE] - LTE signal spectrum mask, [f.sub.max] is maximum integration frequency offset
of DVB-T spectrum mask and [f.sub.off] is frequency offset
between center frequency of victim and interfering signals.
In OFDM system, Carrier Frequency Offset
(CFO) is used to maintain the orthogonality between the subcarrier in the desired frequency range, which results in Inter Carrier Interference (ICI).