The normalized frequency shifts
of the resonators are b1' and b2', respectively.
The frequency shift
and realized gain at nadir of the antennas are plotted against d in Figure 11.
A simple high-speed photodiode can monitor the modulation frequency and provide a signal that can be heterodyned with the cw probe light to provide a measure of the Brillouin frequency shift
and linewidth .
A significant frequency shift
is observed when the lower end of the microwell container coincides with the ground plane.
The same trend was observed for the [gamma]-graphyne-based resonator, as shown in Figure 5(b), because the frequency shift
decreased with increasing size and mass of the resonator.
Therefore, the proposed algorithm has much less complexity to reduce number of samples of the received signal using frequency shift
and down sampling.
The main problem of the operation of the GPS receiver operating on the LEO orbit is huge Doppler frequency shift
of the navigation signal carrier waves caused by the mutual movement of the navigation and LEO satellites (see Fig.
From (14), we can deduce the frequency shift
[DELTA][f.sub.i] for any bending vibration mode i, damage depth a, and location x as follows:
A practical QPSK signal, s(t), will contain gain error (e), phase error([beta]), and frequency shift
([[DELTA].sub.[omega]]), as given in
This will help us understand how the resonant frequency and plasma frequency shift
by varying the substrate thickness as 0.25 [micro]m, 0.5 [micro]m, 0.75 [micro]m, and 1.25 [micro]m.
Under the low compression regime displayed in this figure, no frequency shift
is measured during scanner extension.