The friction loss
associated with the vanes for the expander with springs in the slots was dominant, accounting for about 70% of the total friction losses
, which indicated that better measurement should be taken instead of using springs to maintain contact between vanes and the cylinder wall.
They are as follows: shock loss at an inducer inlet, wall friction loss
within impeller channels, tip leakage loss, secondary flow losses, mixing loss at diffuser inlet, wall friction loss
within a diffuser, sudden expansion loss at a scroll inlet, wall friction loss
within a scroll.
Pipe size and fluid velocity influence friction loss
. CPVC pipe has a C-factor of 150; steel pipe's C-factor is 120 when it's new, and decreases as it ages, due to scale build-up.
The Flexadux[R] ADC is a medium weight PVC hose that is reinforced with a spring steel wire helix and features a smooth inner surface to minimize friction loss
and enhance air flow characteristics.
The key connections between flow and line velocity and velocity and pressure drop (or friction loss
) are applicable to all custom pool designs.
A final disadvantage, and one that has kept VFDs from being popular for plumbing systems, was the belief that VFDs are only appropriate in large-scale HVAC systems, where friction loss
is high compared to static pressure loss.
where [H.sub.f] = friction loss
in pipe with the same flow throughout (m),
The ten appendices include engineering conversion factors, chemical resistance of materials, steam and water tables, friction loss
in pipes, and tank volumes.
At greater speeds and on inundated roads, a well-understood type of more-drastic friction loss
known as hydroplaning can occur.
Featuring an inner ply that provides a smooth interior for maximum flow and minimum friction loss
, the two-ply hose is wound with a fiberglass cord, has spring steel wire imbedded between the two piles, and is heat vulcanized for optimum strength and serviceability.
: The loss of pressure during water flow that results from the increasing speed of the water, the increasing length of the pipe, and the roughness of the lining of the pipe.
The air friction loss
from such a long duct enhances lint accumulation.