Erosion due to water run- off, wind erosion, vegetation degradation and a phenomenon called frost shattering are the major processes of desertification in the country, according to the study.
Frost shattering is mainly found in mountainous regions, such as the Himalayas.
Desertification because of frost shattering -- 9.47 million hectares
No further indication of frost shattering was found on quartz grains in this section of the core.
yr BP (Pecsi 1987, Szekel 1987) and SEM analyses of quartz grains within the Kis-Mohos To sediment indicate that frost shattering associated with cold conditions and possibly permafrost persisted in this region much later until at least 10 000 cal.