Crustose lichens in the studied area grew less than a millimeter and their height cannot be measured with a ruler, but the mean height of foliose lichens was 15 mm (Standard Error 1.0 mm), and for fruticose
it was 82 mm (Standard Error 7.0 mm).
Of the species located during the inventory, 70 (65%) were crustose, 31 (29%) were foliose, and 7 (6%) of were species of Cladonia with polymorphic thalli comprised of a squamulose primary thallus and fruticose
canariensis Steiner (epiphytic, fruticose
, and bushy-like structured lichen) were collected mainly from Pinus pinea Aiton, on a minimum of five to ten trees at each sampling point, and always at a 1-3 m height.
The growth form of each lichen was determined: foliose (leaf-like), crustose (crust-like), fruticose
(shrub-like) or squamulose (scale-like).
La Plata is the only locality with a fruticose
lichens are stalked and bushy in appearance.
Lichens may be foliose (leafy); fruticose
(shrublike or stalked); or crustose (crust-forming).
Based on the structure of the thallus, lichens have been placed in four major groups: leprose, crustose, foliose, and fruticose
. Leprose lichens have the simplest structure, consisting of a loosely woven network of fungal strands (hyphae) within which algal cells are embedded.
Continuing towards the sea, the second horizon contains halophilic lichens, which may be encrusting lichens, such as some yellow or reddish Caloplaca; foliose lichens, such as some Parmelia; or even fruticose
lichens, such as some species of the genus Ramalina.
In undisturbed vegetation, pleurocarpous mosses and fruticose
lichens were totally dominant, but were virtually absent in the burned plots during the 5-yr observation period.
Near coastal areas, blue oaks are often heavily covered with pendulous, fruticose
lichen Ramalina menziesii Tayl.
lichen transplant technique for air pollution experiments.