fullerene


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fullerene,

any of a class of carboncarbon
[Lat.,=charcoal], nonmetallic chemical element; symbol C; at. no. 6; interval in which at. wt. ranges 12.0096–12.0116; m.p. about 3,550°C;; graphite sublimes about 3,375°C;; b.p. 4,827°C;; sp. gr. 1.8–2.1 (amorphous), 1.9–2.3 (graphite), 3.
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 molecules in which the carbon atoms are arranged into 12 pentagonal faces and 2 or more hexagonal faces to form a hollow sphere, cylinder, or similar figure. The smallest possible fullerene molecule may have as few as 32 atoms of carbon, although fullerenelike molecules (lacking a hexagonal face) with as few as 20 carbon atoms have been found.

The most common and most stable fullerene is buckminsterfullerenebuckminsterfullerene
or buckyball,
C60, hollow cage carbon molecule named for R. Buckminster Fuller because of the resemblance of its molecular structure to his geodesic domes.
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, a spheroidal molecule, resembling a soccer ball, consisting of 60 carbon atoms. Buckminsterfullerene is the most abundant cluster of carbon atoms found in carbon soot. It is also the smallest carbon molecule whose pentagonal faces are isolated from each other. Other fullerenes that have been produced in macroscopic amounts have 70, 76, 84, 90, and 96 carbon atoms, and much larger fullerenes have been found, such as those that contain 180, 190, 240, and 540 carbon atoms.

Fullerenes were first identified in 1985 as products of experiments in which graphite was vaporized using a laser, work for which R. F. Curl, Jr., R. E. Smally, and H. W. Kroto shared the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Fullerenes have since been discovered in nature as a result of lightning strikes, in the residue produced by carbon arc lamps, in interstellar dust, and in meteorites.

Fullerene chemistry involves substituting metal atoms for one or more carbon atoms in the molecule to produce compounds called fullerides. Among these are conducting films of alkali metal-doped fullerenes and superconductors (potassium-doped Tc 18°K;, rubidium-doped Tc 30°K;). Fullerenes also have been used to produce tiny diamonds and thin diamond films. Fullerene research is expected to lead to new materials, lubricants, coatings, catalysts, electro-optical devices, and medical applications.

Bibliography

See M. S. Dresselhaus et al., Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes (1996); H. W. Kroto, The Fullerenes: New Horizons for the Chemistry, Physics, and Astrophysics of Carbon (1997); R. Taylor, ed., Lecture Notes on Fullerene Chemistry (1999).

fullerene

[′fu̇l·ə‚rēn]
(chemistry)
A large molecule composed entirely of carbon, with the chemical formula Cn , where n is any even number from 32 to over 100; believed to have the structure of a hollow spheroidal cage with a surface network of carbon atoms connected in hexagonal and pentagonal rings.
References in periodicals archive ?
where Z = Ne is a positive charge, and R is the fullerene radius.
There was a considerable change in the value of complexes dipole, especially for proposal 4 (0.94247 D to 16.41164 D), compared to the dipole value of the fullerene derivative sole (27.82601 D).
Even chemical functionalization can increase the solubility of the extreme insoluble and hydrophobic fullerene. For instance, cationic-functionalized fullerenes have a stable solubility and are more able to bind anionic residues of cancer cells, which enable a targeted and controlled delivery of drugs [45, 46].
The energy diagram for the ternary cells shows a <<cascade>> of energy levels, where several pathways for the charge transfer are energetically favourable: the photoexcited pBTTT may transfer electrons to both fullerene (P[C.sub.61] BM) and PTB7, and the photoexcited PTB7 can transfer electrons to P[C.sub.61]BM.
We obtained the fully optimized geometries of the [C.sub.20][H.sub.18] [(C[H.sub.3]).sub.2] derivatives (the smallest fullerene disubstituents) without any constraints using the hybrid B3LYP/631G(d,p) density functional method.
Absorption characteristics of fullerene [C.sub.60] in N-methyl-2-pirrolidone/toluene mixtures.
This study aims to examine whether topical application of MRS and MLS could attenuate the related skin damage caused by UVB irradiation in hairless mice compared to the pure fullerene C60 positive control.
[10.] Fujitani Y., Kobayashi T., Arashidani K., Kunugita N., Suemura K.: Measurement of the physical properties of aerosols in a fullerene factory for inhalation exposure assessment.
"What we find in our study is this particular system -- nanotubes with fullerenes -- have an exceptionally low reorganization energy and the nanotubes themselves probably have very, very low reorganization energy," said Jeffrey Blackburn, a senior scientist at NREL and co-author of the paper "Tuning the driving force for exciton dissociation in single-walled carbon nanotube heterojunctions."
A series of energetic fullerene derivatives have been intensively investigated in recent years [7-12].
It brings together Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany's extensive experience with organic semiconducting materials and Nano-C's unique know-how in fullerene derivatives.
In fact, all fullerenes other than the 20-atom dodecahedron and the 60-atom soccer ball have this defect.