fumaric acid


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Related to fumaric acid: fumaric acid esters

fumaric acid

(fyo͞omăr`ĭk) or

trans-butenedioic acid,

HO2CCH=CHCO2H, unsaturated dicarboxylic acid that melts at 287°C;. Maleic acid, or cis-butenedioic acid, is a geometric isomerisomer
, in chemistry, one of two or more compounds having the same molecular formula but different structures (arrangements of atoms in the molecule). Isomerism is the occurrence of such compounds. Isomerism was first recognized by J. J. Berzelius in 1827.
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 of fumaric acid; it melts at about 140°C;. Of the two isomers fumaric acid is the more stable and can be prepared from maleic acid by heating it. Fumaric acid can be prepared by catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial action on glucose. It is found in small amounts in a variety of plants and is essential to the respiration of animal and vegetable tissue. Fumaric acid is used as a substitute for tartaric acidtartaric acid,
HO2CCHOHCHOHCO2H, white crystalline dicarboxylic acid. It occurs as three distinct isomers, the dextro-, levo-, and meso- forms.
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 in beverages and baking powder. It is used as a mordant in dyeing and in the manufacture of synthetic resins and polyhydric alcohols.

fumaric acid

[fyü′mar·ik ′as·əd]
(organic chemistry)
C4H4O4 A dicarboxylic organic acid produced commercially by synthesis and fermentation; the trans isomer of maleic acid; colorless crystals, melting point 287°C; used to make resins, paints, varnishes, and inks, in foods, as a mordant, and as a chemical intermediate. Also known as boletic acid.
References in periodicals archive ?
Fumaric aciduria is characterized with excessive excretion of fumaric acid in urine.
Now, neurologists at RUB have found that fumaric acid salts detoxify radicals released during the inflammation process, thus protecting nerve and glial cells.
They will also need to be advised regarding the limited data on pregnancy or lactation with fumaric acid esters.
Maleic acid and fumaric acid can not normally be interconverted because rotation around the carbon-carbon double bond is restricted.
For skin disease, first-line therapies include phototherapy, methotrexate, fumaric acid esters, TNF inhibitors, efalizumab, and cyclosporine; second-line therapies include acitretin and alefacept; and third-line therapies include sulfasalazine and hydroxyurea.
Here we review data on fumaric acid esters (FAE) as new orally available drugs with the potential as an innovative therapeutic approach for RRMS.
Fumaric acid seemed to increase the linear growth more than Succinic and Lactic acid, but not significantly different at similar concentrations.
The olefinically unsaturated monomer corresponds to one or more monomers selected from at least one olefinically unsaturated monomer selected from the group consisting of: a) mono- and di-esters of crotonic acid, cinnamic acid, fumaric acid, maleic acid, citraconic acid, and itaconic acid; b) carboxyfunctional monomers; c) N-vinyl caprolactam, vinyl phosphonates, N-vinyl formamides, N-vinyl acetamides, hydroxypropyl acrylates and methacrylates, monoacrylates and monomethacrylates of polyalkylene glycols, acrylates, methacrylates, acrylic acid and methacrylic acid amides containing amine groups; d) vinyl esters corresponding to general formula (I) CH2xCH--O--C(O)--R1, with R1=C11-21.
The feed, a mixture of organic sugars and bacteria based on fumaric acid, is reported to have cut methane emissions by 70%.
Fumarate therapy, consisting of a mixture of fumaric acid esters, referred to as BG00012, produced by Fumapharm AG, has been used in Europe as a treatment for psoriasis for decades.
Now scientists at the Rowett Research Institute in Aberdeen, funded by the Scottish Executive, have found that fumaric acid slashes emissions.
has developed BG-12, a more efficacious and tolerable oral formulation of fumaric acid esters that will be entering phase III trials in the United States.