Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.


A hole, usually found in volcanic areas, from which vapors or gases escape.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a small vent or fissure from which hot gases issue. The gases may include H2O, HCl, HF, SO2, CO2, CO, H2S, and H2. If the gases are emitted from magma, the vent is called a primary fumarole; if they are emitted from lava flows or pyroclastics that have not yet solidified, the vent is referred to as a secondary, or rootless, fumarole.

Fumaroles may be located in the crater, on the slopes, or at the foot of a volcano. The gases are emitted under pressure, frequently resulting in a loud hissing or roaring. As the temperature decreases, the water vapor undergoes a transformation to the liquid state. Depending on thermodynamic conditions, certain gases emitted along with the water vapor are dissolved in the liquid water, as are various gases and substances that are produced as a result of reactions with the wall rock and that are encountered on the way to the earth’s surface. In this way, hydrothermal solutions form hot springs in the vicinity of active volcanoes.

The deposition of sublimates of halides, sulfates, native sulfur, and other minerals is associated with fumaroles.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
In general, both more abundant elements (Fe) and less abundant ones (Se, Te) are distributed nonuniformly, and their concentrations vary within a range of 1-3 orders of magnitude from one fumarole to another.
When you visit this summer, be sure to sing "Happy Birthday." And try not to blow out the fumaroles.
such colorful language for a place forgotten, fumarole, chamber,
NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has found that the mounds' composition and their location on the flanks of a volcanic is the best evidence for an intact deposit from a hydrothermal environment-a steam fumarole, or hot spring.
(2008) Mineralogy of fumarole deposits at Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, Northern Arizona, Rocks & Minerals, 83, 534-544.
Answers: 1) fumarole; 2) hydrogen sulfide (H2S); 3) hot spring, mud pot; 4) geyser
Loppi S, Bonini I (2000) Lichens and mosses as biomonitors of the trace elements in areas with thermal springs and fumarole activity (Mt.
Travel further round to the south to Fumarole and experience a sauna - nature's way.
Bernal's response to this question hurled his thick, scholarly and occasionally unreadable tomes into the fumarole of the culture wars.
He covers briefly but expertly such divers subjects and areas as science in the Arctic and Antarctic; South Georgia Island and Wrangel Island; Mount Erebus, the world's southernmost active volcano (where Rowell, the expert mountaineer and adventurer, rapelled 85 feet down into an ice-flanked fumarole, traveling "instantly from 30[degrees]F below zero to 30[degrees]F above zero" [p.
TOMORROW CARLISLE: 1.00 One For Rosie, 1.30 Western Rules, 2.05 Take A Break, 2.40 Looksnowtlikebrian, 3.10 Captain Redbeard, 3.45 MISTER WHITAKER (NAP), 4.15 Fumarole.