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A chemical compound which acts in the gaseous state to destroy insects and their larvae and other pests; examples are dichlorethyl ether, p-dichlorobenzene, and ethylene oxide.



a toxic substance used in the gaseous or vapor state to destroy harmful insects and causative agents of plant diseases. Fumigants constitute a class of pesticides.

One of the most commonly used fumigants is methyl bromide, which is used to kill soil-borne insects and agricultural pests (rate of application, 26–60 g/m3; permissible vapor concentration in a work area, 1 mg/cm3). Other common fumigants include 1,2-dichloroethane, which is employed for soil fumigation against insects of the Phylloxeridae family (800–1,200 kg per hectare [ha]); Nemagon, which is used for fumigation against soil insects (200–300 kg/ha); and D-D Mixture, which is a preparation consisting of dichloropropanes (500–1,000 liters/ha) and is also used for soil fumigation. Hydrocyanic acid, another widely used fumi-gant, is prepared in gaseous form at the fumigation site from such salts as sodium cyanide and tsianplav (a mixture of calcium cyanide and sodium cyanide); it is used to control populations of susliks (120–150 g/ha) and to fumigate tea bushes, citrus trees (under tents), planting stock, and mills, including groats mills (100–125 g/m3). Flies and other flying insects in closed areas are destroyed with aerosol insecticides.

Gas masks and other protective devices are used when working with fumigants. Since many fumigants are explosive and flammable, some of them—such as dichloroethane and carbon disulfide—are mixed with fire-extinguishing chemicals; for example, carbon tetrachloride is added to dichloroethane. Moreover, possible sources of combustion and explosion are removed; electric welding, the striking of matches, and the lighting of fires are forbidden in the area being fumigated. Rubber hoses are used for decanting flammable liquids.


Mel’nikov, N. N. Khimiia i tekhnologiia pestitsidov. Moscow, 1974.
Spravochnik po pestitsidam. Edited by L. I. Medved’. Kiev, 1974.


References in periodicals archive ?
In 2013, DPR published an action plan that argued for curtailing and eventually phasing out all fumigants to protect the health of farmworkers, bystanders and nearby communities (DPR 2013).
The above-mentioned companies have collectively accounted for the largest portion of the agricultural fumigants market in 2015.
The residual protective effect of sodium n-methyldithiocarbamate (NaMDC) fumigant was investigated in Douglas-fir timbers in a bridge in western Oregon using fungal colonization and levels of methylisothiocyanate (MITC; the primary fungitoxic breakdown product of NaMDC) as the measures of protection.
Chellemi and colleagues applied several alternative fumigants under commercial application conditions at three sites near Duette, Florida, and three sites near Tifton, Georgia.
Over the last decades, the fumigant insecticides phosphine and methyl bromide have been utilized for the control of insect pests in stored grains (Zettler & Arthur, 2000).
castaneum adults was attributable to fumigant action.
The essential oils from 15 species of African plants selected by ethnobotanical considerations and field inspection (odour and presence of insects) were screened for fumigant toxicity to Anopheles gambiae s.
The chemical was due to be phased out this year, but the US, European countries and Australia have secured the temporary right to continue using it as a fumigant in 2005-6, because of a lack of commercial alternatives.
Ultimately, VHP was deemed to be the best fumigant for the project for a number of reasons.
With the phasing-out of methyl bromide, the most common and effective soil fumigant, and the increasing tolerance of soil-borne pests to other synthetic soil fumigants, mustard plants may find a place in the vegetable crop rotation.
In a statement to the UN Commission on Human Rights, advocates for Colombians exposed to the fumigants said the spraying caused "gastrointestinal disorders (e.