fumigation

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fumigation:

see disinfectantdisinfectant,
agent that destroys disease-causing microorganisms and their spores. Disinfectants, or germicides, are sometimes considered to be substances applied to inanimate bodies, whereas antiseptics, not so potent, are agents that kill microbes on living things.
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Fumigation

 

the destruction of pests and causative agents of plant diseases by means of toxic vapors and gases. Fumigation is carried out with the aid of devices called fumigators and is applied in warehouses, mills, grain elevators, hothouses, hotbeds, vegetable storehouses, containers, rooms, special chambers, pits, and tents made of canvas or synthetics. Soil and rodent burrows may also be fumigated. The process is used to protect cuttings and such crops as grains, vegetables, tea, and fruits, including grapes and citrus fruits.

During fumigation the toxic gases and vapors act on the respiratory organs of pests under airtight conditions, causing the harmful organisms to die from poisoning within a certain amount of time—from a few hours to several days. The method, length of time, and effectiveness of fumigation depend on the properties of the fumigants and pests, as well as on the degree of infestation.

References in periodicals archive ?
Virtually all fumigations extended buffer zones onto farm paths.
For example, a grower may have needed to wait 2 or more days between fumigations due to the unavailability of irrigation equipment or fumigation rigs.
The 2013 baseline buffer zone distances were computed using the EPA's online calculator (US EPA 2015) and checked against permit requirements for each NOI; we excluded two fumigations from the analysis because the EPA buffer for both fumigations was much smaller than the buffer on the NOI and we could not determine the reasons for these differences.
In a series of experiments, Liu tested phosphine fumigation under high levels of oxygen against four insects and at different life stages: western flower thrips adults and larvae, leaf miner pupae, grape mealy bug eggs, and Indian meal moth eggs and pupae.
"It is important to test the fumigation on eggs and pupae because, in general, eggs and pupae are more tolerant of phosphine than larvae and adults," says Liu.
This fumigation treatment was conducted over 24 hours and contained 500 ppm of phosphine at 5[degrees]C.
In the past, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has reported concerns about the environmental effects and effects on residents where glyphosate is sprayed (see NotiSur, 2002-09-20), giving fuel to critics of fumigation. Also of concern are the agents like cosmo-flux, used in combination with the herbicide to make it stick to plants better.
Aside from the ecological effects of fumigation, the sociological and economic consequences are affecting Colombians on a significant scale.
Although fumigation projects are claiming success, the foreign operations subcommittee of the US House Appropriations Committee rejected Colombia's request for an additional US$150 million to strengthen its anti-coca spraying program in June.
The relationship between Uribe and President Bush "could not be closer," says Kimberly Stanton, deputy director of the Washington Office on Latin America, an organization that opposes fumigation and argues that the war on drugs is counterproductive.
Pilot tests were conducted on fumigations in 1997 at Valley Fig Growers in Fresno, California.
The tests showed that over various humidities and temperatures, carbon can adsorb the methyl bromide over several fumigation cycles without losing its capacity to adsorb.