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see disinfectantdisinfectant,
agent that destroys disease-causing microorganisms and their spores. Disinfectants, or germicides, are sometimes considered to be substances applied to inanimate bodies, whereas antiseptics, not so potent, are agents that kill microbes on living things.
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the destruction of pests and causative agents of plant diseases by means of toxic vapors and gases. Fumigation is carried out with the aid of devices called fumigators and is applied in warehouses, mills, grain elevators, hothouses, hotbeds, vegetable storehouses, containers, rooms, special chambers, pits, and tents made of canvas or synthetics. Soil and rodent burrows may also be fumigated. The process is used to protect cuttings and such crops as grains, vegetables, tea, and fruits, including grapes and citrus fruits.

During fumigation the toxic gases and vapors act on the respiratory organs of pests under airtight conditions, causing the harmful organisms to die from poisoning within a certain amount of time—from a few hours to several days. The method, length of time, and effectiveness of fumigation depend on the properties of the fumigants and pests, as well as on the degree of infestation.

References in periodicals archive ?
Table 2 reports the share of fumigations by tarp type for each method.
We report in table 3 the number of fumigations and acres where such strategies were used.
Although these levels are elevated, it is not possible to know the specific air concentration of methyl bromide the family had been exposed to during March 18-20, because sampling was not done at the time fumigation was performed.
In addition to the family of four, 37 persons were identified who had potentially been exposed to methyl bromide; 11 were potentially exposed after the March 2015 fumigation, 20 after the October 2014 fumigation, and one during both periods.
Agricultural Research Station in Salinas, California, is working on low-temperature fumigation with phosphine as an alternative to methyl bromide for control of pests on harvested fresh fruits and vegetables.
Many insects, especially at egg and pupal stages, are very tolerant of phosphine, and it may take more than 10 days of fumigation treatment to control them.
A report from the Organization of American States (OAS) on anti-coca aerial fumigation in Colombia has spurred controversy, with Colombian academics disputing its methodology.
Many Colombians and foreign observers feel fumigations treat the symptom rather than the underlying illness.
Fumigation is designed to get rid of the base of support of the guerrillas, but it is actually strengthening the guerrillas.
Pilot tests were conducted on fumigations in 1997 at Valley Fig Growers in Fresno, California.
We feel that this is a watershed event,'' said EDC Chief Counsel Marc Chytilo at a news conference Wednesday announcing the end of fumigation at Montalvo Ranch in Ventura.
For more information on drywood termites and whole-structure fumigation, visit termitetenting.