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The representation, by means of TV pictures, photographs, graphs, etc., of an object or area by the sensing and recording of patterns of light or other radiation emitted by, reflected from, or transmitted through the object or area. Two broad classifications are chemical imaging, i.e. photography, and electronic imaging. Both are important in astronomy, a variety of photographic emulsions and electronic devices being available for different frequency bands of the electromagnetic spectrum.

The majority of information gathered by ground-based and orbiting telescopes is in digital form so that it can be manipulated by computer. This information can be derived directly from electronic devices, such as CCDs, photon-counting detectors, or photovoltaic detectors, associated with the telescope. These devices respond to radiation by converting it to an electrical signal. They are more sensitive than photographic emulsions, responding to lower levels of intensity and/or producing an image in a shorter time. Photographic plates do, however, provide an image of a much greater area of the sky than existing electronic devices. Machines, such as COSMOS, have therefore been built to measure data on photographic plates rapidly and automatically and produce results in digital form.

An electronic detector can be moved across the focused image of an astronomical object or area of the sky, or the image can be moved across the detector. The electrical signal from the detector is sampled in such a way that an array of values corresponding to an array of portions of the complete image is obtained. Alternatively the image falls on a large number of closely packed detectors, all producing a signal. In each case the result is a set of numbers corresponding to some property of the individual image portions, e.g. the intensity at a particular wavelength. The individual portions into which the image is divided are called pixels (short for picture elements). The greater the number of pixels per image, the higher the resolution, i.e. the greater the detail seen.

This numerical version of the image will normally reside in a computer system, and can be manipulated in different ways in order to highlight different aspects of the original image; the manipulative techniques are known as image processing. The final form of the display can be a TV monitor, a visual display unit attached to a computer, a plotting device, or photographic film, and information derived from the image can also appear in graphs and tables, and be subjected to statistical and numerical analysis.


The formation of images of objects.


The production of graphic images, either from a video camera or from digitally generated data (see visualisation), or the recording of such images on microfilm, videotape or laser disk.

See also scanner.


(1) Creating a film or electronic image of any picture or paper form. It is accomplished by scanning or photographing an object and turning it into a matrix of dots (bitmap), the meaning of which is unknown to the computer, only to the human viewer. Scanned images of text may be encoded into computer data (ASCII or EBCDIC) with page recognition software (OCR). See micrographics, image processing and document imaging.

(2) The illusion of a live performance in audio playback. Microphone placement during recording, post-recording mixing in the studio and the performance of the speakers when listening all contribute to the quality of the imaging. Geared to the type of venue such as a concert hall or nightclub, surround sound processing in the audio equipment creates or enhances effects that attempt to make imaging more realistic.

Speaker Imaging
From the playback side, imaging quality is derived mostly from the speakers. The stiffness and mass of the speaker cone, along with the materials used to suspend the cone in its frame, are the primary criteria that affect the speaker's capability of reproducing sound accurately, and thus the imaging. See surround sound and audiophile.
References in periodicals archive ?
Is preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging reliable for language areas mapping in brain tumor surgery?
All new detailed discussion of applications and implications of Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
The study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to track the brain activity of jazz musicians in the act of "trading fours," a process in which musicians participate in spontaneous back and forth instrumental exchanges, usually four bars in duration.
and / or under certain experimental conditions in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) difficult to achieve.
During the task, their brains were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which measures brain activity by detecting changes in blood flow.
Among the topics are reversible jump MCMC, MCMC using Hamiltonian dynamics, estimating with confidence, spatial point processes, an MCMC-based analysis of a multilevel model for functional magnetic resonance imaging data, statistical ecology, educational research, fisheries science, and analyzing rural-urban migration in Thailand.
Over the course of the one-year study, human subjects had their brain activity scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they performed one of three hand movements: grasping the top of an object, grasping the bottom of the object, or simply reaching out and touching the object.
Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy) compiles chapters by scientists and physicians in neurology, neuroimaging, neuroscience, and psychology from North America and Europe on the main methodological aspects, techniques, and protocols of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure the blood oxygen level-dependent response to anticipated and delivered rectal distention in 14 female IBS patients and 12 healthy controls (mean age 36 years).
Participants in the study underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging brain scans during meditation sessions.
Researchers at Northwestern University in Chicago carried out functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scans while volunteers were shown pictures of doughnuts and screwdrivers.
This is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) test examining the power of brands," said Christine Born, M.

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