revealed a clear disk with an estimated cup-to-disk ratio of about 0.5, arterial-venous ratio of 2:3, and a focal area of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) mottling around the macula of both eyes.
Colour vision was severely impaired (0/15 on Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates) and funduscopy
revealed bilateral profound optic atrophy (Fig.
The number of retinal hemorrhages on funduscopy
increases with the severity of P.
Though congenital and acquired lesions look the same in funduscopy
, some studies point to a better prognosis for cases of acute-acquired toxoplasmosis.
Preoperatively and postoperatively, the routine comprehensive ophthalmological examination (including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) using Snellen charts, biomicroscopy and funduscopy
) and spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) of the macula were performed with Heidelberg Spectralis in all patients.
In our patients, the funduscopy
examination findings were of optic disc atrophy in 47.5% patients and papilledema in 20% patients, but in a study conducted by Sher K.
All patients underwent a complete ocular examination including refraction, IOP measurement (Goldmann applanation tonometer), slit lamp biomicroscopy, gonioscopy, funduscopy
, and OCT angiography imaging before and after surgery.
Visual acuity (VA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, Humphrey visual field analysis (VFA), and stereoscopic funduscopy
were performed on admission and every 6 months after the surgery.
The present study facilitated a mini 'memory reference library' of fundic images in different species in Indian clinical settings advocating ocular funduscopy
to be a routine in diagnostic ophthalmic armamentarium.
: Both distant direct and direct ophthalmoscopy were done by Hiene's ophthalmoscope.
revealed a bilateral swelled, hyperemic, enlarged optic discs with blurred margins (Figure 1).
Three-drug anti-tuberculous therapy (with rifampin, isoniazid, and streptomycin) was introduced despite chest and bone radiographs that were negative for infection, no abnormalities found on funduscopy
, and negative results of Ziehl-Neelsen staining of lymph node tissue.