The Japanese versions of each tale include simple kanji with furigana
pronunciations to help young learners recognize the characters.
The other two Japanese alphabets are hiragana and katakana (which together are called kana); they are different from kanji since they are syllabic alphabets; the former is the most basic, used for writing words that do not have a kanji, also for adjectives and verb endings, and as a subtitle for rare or unknown kanji (the subtitle is called furigana
The kanjichosen is high level, but the textbook does provide support with furigana
(pronunciation guide) included.
The author most frequently reprinted was undoubtedly the leading thinker in Korean sinology, Yi T'oegye (1501-1570): eleven of his works were reprinted in the Edo period, mostly between 1640 and 1670 but one as late as 1809.76 Some were facsimiles of Korean editions and retained the original colophon, but they all came equipped with kunten and some furigana
for the convenience of Japanese readers.
Part of their appeal, and the reason I describe this experience here, is that manga generally offer a combination of drawings and simple text, often accompanied by diacritic markings called furigana
, which give the pronunciations of difficult words and so are especially helpful for those learning the language--whether a child or a non-native speaker.
Japanese Dictionary: Japanese-English English-Japanese.
provides the proper pronunciation for a Chinese character--kanji.
All the Chinese material presented in the Towa sanyo is in Chinese characters with the Chinese pronunciation written alongside in katakana (similar to the way furigana
is used in modern Japanese).