Thus, glutamatergic and GABAergic
connectivity within the PFC has received much attention in the context of SZ, particularly concerning cognitive function.
In Aplysia, GABA accumulation occurred predominantly in glia, suggesting a functional role for glial uptake at GABAergic
synapses (Zeman et al., 1975).
Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera (Indian Ginseng) and Shilajit differentially affects cholinergic but not glutamatergic and GABAergic
markers in rat brain.
They found that these arousal-related neurons are heavily innervated by GABAergic
neurons in the preoptic area, including the VLPO.
The anxiolytic effect of carvacrol was significantly inhibited by flumazenil that shows the involvement of the GABAergic
Clinical trials and some case reports have evidenced the effective use of Melatonin in headaches difficult to manage both in the pediatric population and in adults (7-11); and although little is known about the pharmacodynamics of this drug in PSH, it is believed that its possible mechanisms of action are related to its capacity to potentiate the analgesic effect of the GABAergic
system and endogenous opioids, neurovascular regulation and modulation of serotonin and endorphins (12).
This postulate is backed up by the studies showing an increased function in glutamatergic neurons and decreased function in GABAergic
Dysfunction of GABAergic
transmission is associated with many neurological disorders including schizophrenia, epilepsy, depression and autism spectrum disorder (Luscher et al., 2011).
A previous study found that ASSRs induced energy in the gamma band was significantly lower in schizophrenia patients than in healthy subjects. A follow-up study suggested that it might be linked with volume changes in GABAergic
interneurons and pyramidal cells, leading to excitation and inhibition deficits.
A number of mechanisms have been suggested for central sensitization, among which there is strongest evidence for the dysfunction of GABAergic
interneurons and their role in modifying synaptic transmission of pain signaling pathways in response to PNI [11-13].
The upregulated DEGs were enriched in cell cycle, ECM-receptor interaction, p53 signaling pathway, pathways in cancer, and hepatitis B, while the downregulated DEGs were enriched in retrograde endocannabinoid signaling, glutamatergic synapse, morphine addiction, GABAergic
synapse, and calcium signaling pathway.
In the dentate gyrus, glutamatergic and GABAergic
synapses act as the major sources of excitation and inhibition, respectively [2, 27].