gadolinium


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gadolinium

(gădəlĭn`ēəm), metallic chemical element; symbol Gd; at. no. 64; at. wt. 157.25; m.p. 1,312°C;; b.p. 3,233°C;; sp. gr. 7.898 at 25°C;; valence +3. Gadolinium is a malleable, ductile, lustrous silver-white metal with a hexagonal close-packed crystalline structure at room temperature. It is a rare-earth metalrare-earth metals,
in chemistry, group of metals including those of the lanthanide series and actinide series and usually yttrium, sometimes scandium and thorium, and rarely zirconium. Promethium, which is not found in nature, is not usually considered a rare-earth metal.
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 found in Group 3 of the periodic tableperiodic table,
chart of the elements arranged according to the periodic law discovered by Dmitri I. Mendeleev and revised by Henry G. J. Moseley. In the periodic table the elements are arranged in columns and rows according to increasing atomic number (see the table entitled
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. Although the metal does not tarnish in dry air, in moist air an oxide film forms; the film flakes off, exposing more metal to oxidation. Gadolinium reacts slowly with water and dissolves in dilute mineral acids. It occurs in nature in its salts and especially as the oxide, gadolinia, a rare earthrare earths,
in chemistry, oxides of the rare-earth metals. They were once thought to be elements themselves. They are widely distributed in the earth's crust and are fairly abundant, although they were once thought to be very scarce.
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. It is a component of the minerals gadolinite, monazite, and bastnasite. Naturally occurring gadolinium is a mixture of seven isotopes; ten additional isotopes are known. Although gadolinium absorbs neutrons more effectively than does any other known substance, this property is caused by two isotopes that are present only to a limited extent in natural gadolinium. Gadolinium has found some use in control rods for nuclear reactors; it has also been used as a "poison" in nuclear fuels, added to control the initial rapid reaction and "burning out" as the reaction proceeds. Gadolinium metal can be prepared by reduction of anhydrous gadolinium fluoride with calcium metal. Gadolinium has unusual magnetic properties. At room temperature the metal is paramagnetic, but it becomes strongly ferromagnetic when cooled. Gadolinium compounds are used as phosphors in the manufacture of color-television picture tubes. Gadolinia, the oxide, was extracted from the mineral gadolinite [for J. Gadolin, a Finnish chemist] in 1880 by J. C. G. de Marignac; in 1886, P. E. Lecoq de Boisbaudran independently isolated the oxide from Mosander's "yttria."

gadolinium

[‚gad·əl′in·ē·əm]
(chemistry)
A rare-earth element, symbol Gd, atomic number 64, atomic weight 157.25; highly magnetic, especially at low temperatures.

gadolinium

a ductile malleable silvery-white ferromagnetic element of the lanthanide series of metals: occurs principally in monazite and bastnaesite. Symbol: Gd; atomic no.: 64; atomic wt.: 157.25; valency: 3; relative density: 7.901; melting pt.: 1313??C; boiling pt.: 3273?C (approx.)
References in periodicals archive ?
The FDA has advised all MRI centers to provide a medication guide to outpatients the first time they receive gadolinium.
Detlef Moka, MD, and Chief Executive Officer of BDN stated in interview: "If gadolinium stays in the body longer in patient with renal insufficiency, Gd can accumulate in the skin and organs and cause the severe connective tissue disease NSF."
She said: "Gadolinium contrast agents are compounds that contain a very toxic heavy metal paired with a rather untested drug with variable stability, with somewhat unknown clinical benefits.
In these reactions, different ratios of unirradiated gadolinium acetate as [Gd.sub.3+] raw material were mixed with aluminum oxide as [Al.sup.3+] raw material (0.1[Gd.sub.3+]/0.9[Al.sup.3+], 0.3[Gd.sub.3+]/0.7[Al.sup.3+], and 0.5[Gd.sub.3+]/0.5[Al.sup.3+]).
After 24 h incubation with 0-2.5 [micro]M GBCAs, the macrophages increased uptake of gadolinium as detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; Figure 2(a)).
This also explains why the lower gadolinium content was detected in the resulting sample after initial loading of 9 mol.% compared to that of 7 mol.%.
In our case, CMR showed myocardial edema in the T2-weighted images and myocardial areas of late gadolinium enhancement in the early phase.
In this study, when aqueous solutions were exposed to [gamma]-rays, they create solvated electrons, which reduced gadolinium ions to form highly pure gadolinium metal, [Gd.sup.3+] [right arrow] [Gd.sup.0].
The gadolinium isotope [Gd.sup.160] caused a positive interference in the ICP-MS measurement of [Se.sup.80] from the production of doubly charged ions that had the same m/z ratio as [Se.sup.80] (2, 3).
TOKYO, Mar 17, 2016 - (ACN Newswire) - Japanese scientists have reviewed recent progress in advanced optical materials based on gadolinium aluminate garnet (GAG), while pointing out the knowledge gaps that need to be filled to improve their optical performance.