galactose


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Related to galactose: saccharose

galactose:

see lactoselactose
or milk sugar,
white crystalline disaccharide (see carbohydrate). It has the same empirical formula (C12H22O11) as sucrose (cane sugar) and maltose but differs from both in structure (see isomer).
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Galactose

A monosaccharide and a constituent of oligosaccharides, notably lactose, melibiose, raffinose, and stachyose. It is also known as d -galactose and cerebrose (see illustration). Agar, gum arabic, mesquite gum, larch arabo galactan, and a variety of other gums and mucilages contain d -galactose. See Agar, Monosaccharide

Structural formula for α - d -galactoseenlarge picture
Structural formula for α - d -galactose

l -Galactose (enantiomorph of d -galactose) occurs in several polysaccharides, including agar, flaxseed mucilage, snail galactogen, and chagual gum. Since d -galactose is usually also present, hydrolysis of these polysaccharides produces dl -galactose. See Carbohydrate

Galactose

 

a monosaccharide; one of the most frequently encountered natural hexahydric alcohols, a hexose. It differs from glucose in the spatial position of the groups around the fourth carbon atom. Galactose is readily soluble in water and only slightly soluble in alcohol. It exists in aliphatic and cyclic (pyranose, or furanose) forms, which are in a state of tautomeric equilibrium:

In plant tissues galactose is a component of raffinose, melibiose, and stachyose, as well as polysaccharides — galactans, pectins, saponins, various gums and mucilages, gum arabic, and so on. In the animal and human body galactose is a component of lactose (milk sugar), galactogen, group-specific polysaccharides, cerebrosides, and muco-proteins. Galactose is part of many bacterial polysaccharides and can be fermented by so-called lactose yeast. In animal and plant tissues, galactose readily changes to glucose, which is more assimilated and can be converted to ascorbic and galacturonic acids.

L. L. KHACHATRIAN

galactose

[gə′lak‚tōs]
(biochemistry)
C6H12O6 A monosaccharide occurring in both levo and dextro forms as a constituent of plant and animal oligosaccharides (lactose and raffinose) and polysaccharides (agar and pectin). Also known as cerebrose.
References in periodicals archive ?
One cohort would be restricted in dietary galactose for the first year of life, and the other would not.
Stepwise regression of the individual monosaccharides against yield produced a model with only arabinose and galactose being significant (Table 5).
This study tested these hypotheses by measuring the concentrations of several galactose metabolites and then assessing their relationships to RBC Gal-1-P concentration, dietarygalactose intake, and neurodevelopmental/clinical outcomes in DG children.
Genotype x year interactions were observed for rhamnose, xylose, and galactose.
Lack of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase causes an increased amount of galactose in the circulating blood (known as galactosemia).
Washington, June 1 (ANI): Commonalities between flies and humans can help offer a valuable new model for galactosemia, a metabolic disease resulting from an inherited defect that prevents the proper metabolism of galactose, a sugar commonly found in dairy products, like milk, say scientists.
The disease is caused by a defect of galactose-1phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT), [2] an enzyme central to the Leloir pathway in which galactose is converted into glucose.
StatStrip measures and corrects for interferences from acetaminophen (Tylenol), uric acid, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), maltose, galactose, xylose, and lactose.
Microbial lactase can hydrolyze lactose in milk into glucose and galactose.
1] FW) including galactose, glucose, sucrose, fructose, raffinose, stachyose, verbascose, and maltose were compared to glucose content and percent sugar hydrolysis defined as the ratio of (galactose + glucose + fructose / total soluble sugars) x 100.
Because lactose intolerance discourages high consumption of milk and other dairy goods rich in galactose - a sugar apparently toxic to human eggs - this trait may be beneficial, observe gynecologist Daniel W.
Yogurt and Milk Intolerance Children with a milk intolerance lack the enzyme lactase so they can't break down lactose (milk sugar) into the simple sugars glucose and galactose.