gall bladder

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gall bladder,

small pear-shaped sac that stores and concentrates bilebile,
bitter alkaline fluid of a yellow, brown, or green color, secreted, in man, by the liver. Bile, or gall, is composed of water, bile acids and their salts, bile pigments, cholesterol, fatty acids, and inorganic salts.
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. It is connected to the liver (which produces the bile) by the hepatic duct. When food containing fat reaches the small intestine, the hormone cholecystokinin is produced by cells in the intestinal wall and carried to the gall bladder via the bloodstream. The hormone causes the gall bladder to contract, forcing bile into the common bile duct. A valve, which opens only when food is present in the intestine, allows bile to flow from the common bile duct into the duodenum where it functions in the process of fat digestion.

The substances contained in bile sometimes crystallize in the gall bladder, forming gallstones. These small, hard concretions are more common in persons over 40, especially in women and the obese. They can cause inflammation of the gall bladder, a disorder that produces symptoms similar to those of indigestion, especially after a fatty meal is consumed. If a stone becomes lodged in the bile duct, it produces severe pain. Gallstones may pass out of the body spontaneously; however, serious blockage is treated by removing the gall bladder surgically.

gall bladder

a muscular pear-shaped sac, lying underneath the right lobe of the liver, that stores bile and ejects it into the duodenum through the common bile duct
References in periodicals archive ?
Results: Gall bladder adenocarcinoma was detected in only two patients (0.
Diagnosis of gall bladder carcinoma is difficult at an early stage because of lack of specific signs and symptoms and the frequent association with chronic cholecystitis and gall stones.
Objective: To describe the experience of treating empyema gall bladder with laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Cholecystectomy is commonly performed surgery in routine practice and it is difficult to diagnose distinctively benign and malignant lesions of gall bladder before surgery without histopathological examination2.
Nguyen repeatedly engaged in the illegal trafficking of American black bear gall bladders and other parts, a crime that is both reprehensible and a violation of federal and state laws, said U.
Histology confirmed two separate gall bladders, both with features of chronic cholecystitis.
Anomalies of gall bladder with respect to peritoneal attachments such as the viscus having a mesentery or lying freely in the peritoneal cavity, [1] adhesions and peritoneal folds in the relation to the organ [2] are frequented often enough, during innumerable invasive procedures.
Correlation of incidence of acute cholecystitis complications (empyema and gangrene) to male gender and to the sonographic gall bladder wall thickness more than 4.
However, in the wall of the gall bladders the fibroblasts continued to dominate in chronic cholecystitis.
10 It was also noted that the adopting of a more selective policy and examining only the macroscopically abnormal gall bladders proved to be equally sensitive as no invasive carcinoma was missed.
Traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomies, or gall bladder removals, involve four half-inch or smaller incisions that may leave scars.
A large study of more than 80,000 women found that women with a high intake of vegetable protein had a lower risk of having their gall bladders removed than did women eating very little vegetable protein.