Gall Midges

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Gall Midges

 

(Cecidomyiidae or Itonididae), a family of mosquito-like insects of the order Diptera. The dimensions of the gall midge are small (1-5 mm), and the nervation of the wings is simple. The larvae, which are narrowed at the ends and are red, orange, or green, carry a chitinous sternal spatula on the ventral side. Larvae of the lower Cecidomyiidae develop in the rotting remains of plants, and those of the higher Cecidomyiidae in the tissues of plants, causing the formation of galls (hence the designation “gall midge”); the species of a gall midge is determined according to the species of its plant host and according to the shape of the gall it forms. Adult gall midges live approximately 20 days, and they do not feed. About 3,500 species are known. Gall midges are found in Europe, Asia, and North America. There are about 500 species in the USSR. Because they develop in the tissues of plants, many gall midges cause serious damage to agriculture and forests. The most dangerous species are the Hessian fly; the millet midge; the wheat midge (Contarinia tritici), which damages the ears of rye and wheat; the rye-stem gnat (Hybolasioptera cerealis), which damages the bundles of stalks in many cultivated cereals; the pear midge (Contarinia pyrivora); and the raspberry midge (Lasioptera rubi), which damages horticultural gardens. Protection against gall midges is often very difficult; it is based on agrotechnical and other measures.

A. B. LANGE

References in periodicals archive ?
Are gall midge species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) host-plant specialist Rev.
The use of yellow sticky traps has been documented for the monitoring of blueberry gall midge Dasineura oxycoccana Johnson (Plazanin et al.
Gagne (1994), in an account of the gall midges of the Neotropical Region, provided a brief biography of Jean-Jacques Kieffer (1857-1925), in which he noted that Kieffer published 470 scientific papers, including taxonomic studies of the Cecidomyiidae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae and parasitic Hymenoptera.
Hessian fly and barley stem gall midge, two different species of Mayetiola (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Morocco.
To date, 13 gall midge biotypes have been identified by testing individual biotypes for virulence on a set of rice cultivars used as differentials and containing different known resistance genes, R-genes (Sardesai et al.
IGP occurred in nearly 72% of the tests involving the coccinellid and the gall midge.
In this case, multi-trophic interactions are likely to mask the variation in the plant from any potential selection by the herbivore because predators and parasitoids usually suppress gall midge densities.
In particular, midges that develop in Borrichia are statistically larger and genetically distinct from the populations associated with the 2 species of Iva and much evidence suggests that the original host plant of the gall midge was sea oxeye daisy (B.
We identified, explored population trends and natural enemies of Procontarinia matteiana Kieffer and Cecconi, a gall midge forming galls on mango leaves from the complex of mango gall midges (Rehman et al.
Parasitoid-mediated AR has previously been observed in the interactions of the gall midge Asphondylia borrichiae Rossi & Strong (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) with 2 of its host species, Borrichia frutescens (L.
But no invader plays as dramatic a role in the life of the blueberry plant as the blueberry gall midge.