Gall Midges

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Gall Midges

 

(Cecidomyiidae or Itonididae), a family of mosquito-like insects of the order Diptera. The dimensions of the gall midge are small (1-5 mm), and the nervation of the wings is simple. The larvae, which are narrowed at the ends and are red, orange, or green, carry a chitinous sternal spatula on the ventral side. Larvae of the lower Cecidomyiidae develop in the rotting remains of plants, and those of the higher Cecidomyiidae in the tissues of plants, causing the formation of galls (hence the designation “gall midge”); the species of a gall midge is determined according to the species of its plant host and according to the shape of the gall it forms. Adult gall midges live approximately 20 days, and they do not feed. About 3,500 species are known. Gall midges are found in Europe, Asia, and North America. There are about 500 species in the USSR. Because they develop in the tissues of plants, many gall midges cause serious damage to agriculture and forests. The most dangerous species are the Hessian fly; the millet midge; the wheat midge (Contarinia tritici), which damages the ears of rye and wheat; the rye-stem gnat (Hybolasioptera cerealis), which damages the bundles of stalks in many cultivated cereals; the pear midge (Contarinia pyrivora); and the raspberry midge (Lasioptera rubi), which damages horticultural gardens. Protection against gall midges is often very difficult; it is based on agrotechnical and other measures.

A. B. LANGE

References in periodicals archive ?
Hessian fly and barley stem gall midge, two different species of Mayetiola (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Morocco.
To date, 13 gall midge biotypes have been identified by testing individual biotypes for virulence on a set of rice cultivars used as differentials and containing different known resistance genes, R-genes (Sardesai et al., 2001).
old larvae and adults), and (3) mobility [sessile (eggs, pupae), slightly mobile (gall midge larvae), and highly mobile individuals (coccinellid and lacewing larvae, adults)].
In this case, multi-trophic interactions are likely to mask the variation in the plant from any potential selection by the herbivore because predators and parasitoids usually suppress gall midge densities.
Burseramyia braziliensis, a new species of gall midge (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Asphondyliini) associated with Swartzia langsdorffii Raddi (Fabaceae).
Intra-plant heterogeneity influences the preference and performance of juveniles and adults of a gall midge. Ecol.
Populations of the gall midge Dasineura oxycoccana on cranberry and blueberry produce and respond to different sex pheromones.
But no invader plays as dramatic a role in the life of the blueberry plant as the blueberry gall midge.
Manipulation of host plant development by the gall midge Rhabdophaga strobiloides.
(Aphelenchoidea: Sphaerulariidae) parasitic in the gall midge Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).