gamma globulin


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Related to gamma globulin: human gamma globulin

gamma globulin,

a group of globulinglobulin,
any of a large family of proteins of a spherical or globular shape that are widely distributed throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Many of them have been prepared in pure crystalline form.
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 proteins in human blood plasma, including most antibodiesantibody,
protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins.
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. These antibody substances are produced as a protective reaction of the body's immune system to the invasion of disease-producing organisms (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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). Injections of gamma globulin are used to create a rapid but temporary immunity in patients who have been exposed to certain diseases. Children who have been exposed to, but are not immunized against, measlesmeasles
or rubeola
, highly contagious disease typically contracted during childhood, caused by a filterable virus and spread by droplet spray from the nose, mouth, and throat of individuals in the infective stage.
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 and patients with hepatitishepatitis
, inflammation of the liver. There are many types of hepatitis. Causes include viruses, toxic chemicals, alcohol consumption, parasites and bacteria, and certain drugs.
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 receive some protection from gamma globulin when it is administered during the incubation period of the infection. The gamma globulin used for such purposes is extracted from blood plasma from a large, diverse adult population; the resulting mixture is thus likely to contain antibodies from individuals who had been exposed to the appropriate infections.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Gamma Globulin

 

a fraction of globulins in blood plasma containing the most antibodies. In comparison with other protein fractions of the blood, gamma globulin has the slowest electrophoretic mobility. Gamma globulin is obtained either from the blood of donors or from blood from the placenta. So-called specific gamma globulin with an especially high content of antibodies to specific pathogens is isolated from the serum of humans or animals that have been immunized with the corresponding antigens. For example, anti-whooping-cough gamma globulin is prepared from the serum of humans hyperimmunized with whooping-cough vaccine; antirabies gamma globulin comes from the serum of horses hyperimmunized against rabies. Concentrated solutions of gamma globulin contain considerably more antibodies than the initial serums. In the USSR gamma globulin is produced in the form of a 10 percent solution (introduced intramuscularly). Gamma globulin is used for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases mainly in children (measles, whooping cough, poliomyelitis, epidemic hepatitis, and other diseases). Gamma globulin also has a certain nonspecific (stimulating) effect and for this reason it is prescribed for children with chronic inflammations, decline in appetite, and so on.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

gamma globulin

[′gam·ə ′gläb·yə·lən]
(immunology)
Any of the serum proteins with antibody activity.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
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3; "Gamma Globulin Lacking for Mass Immunization", WFP, 17 August, 1953, p.
Hypothalamic role in control of gamma globulin levels.
Akagi's group found that aneurysms were most likely to subside in children treated with gamma globulin, a protein produced by the body to fight inflammation.
Prompt diagnosis and appropriate precautions with gamma globulin or vaccination are important for those who are exposed.
The most effective method is with IV gamma globulin proteins in the blood plasma - containing anti-antibodies which bind to the harmful antibodies, leaving them unable to complete their attack.
A recent telephone survey of several pharmacies in our fair city, occasioned by the need for a shot of gamma globulin just before heading to a more primitive area of the world, revealed that this old standby for travelers appears to not be as readily available as it once was.
Experiments are being conducted with some success using gamma globulin, a component of blood serum that contains specific antibodies.
Recent studies [5] have shown that glucocorticoids combined with a large dose of gamma globulin treatment can reduce the incidence of coronary artery disease in patients with severe KD.
Studies are showing that treating with IV gamma globulin actually can result in a growing back and recovery of these nerves, helping both the small fiber neuropathy pain and autonomic dysfunction.
Based on calculations of TP and the albumin fraction obtained by the biuret method and the BCG method, respectively, 5 protein fractions were identified in the electrophoretogram: prealbumin, albumin, alpha globulin, beta globulin, and gamma globulin (Fig 2).