gamma globulin


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Related to gamma globulin: human gamma globulin

gamma globulin,

a group of globulinglobulin,
any of a large family of proteins of a spherical or globular shape that are widely distributed throughout the plant and animal kingdoms. Many of them have been prepared in pure crystalline form.
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 proteins in human blood plasma, including most antibodiesantibody,
protein produced by the immune system (see immunity) in response to the presence in the body of antigens: foreign proteins or polysaccharides such as bacteria, bacterial toxins, viruses, or other cells or proteins.
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. These antibody substances are produced as a protective reaction of the body's immune system to the invasion of disease-producing organisms (see immunityimmunity,
ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Although all animals have some immune capabilities, little is known about nonmammalian immunity.
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). Injections of gamma globulin are used to create a rapid but temporary immunity in patients who have been exposed to certain diseases. Children who have been exposed to, but are not immunized against, measlesmeasles
or rubeola
, highly contagious disease of young children, caused by a filterable virus and spread by droplet spray from the nose, mouth, and throat of individuals in the infective stage.
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 and patients with hepatitishepatitis
, inflammation of the liver. There are many types of hepatitis. Causes include viruses, toxic chemicals, alcohol consumption, parasites and bacteria, and certain drugs.
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 receive some protection from gamma globulin when it is administered during the incubation period of the infection. The gamma globulin used for such purposes is extracted from blood plasma from a large, diverse adult population; the resulting mixture is thus likely to contain antibodies from individuals who had been exposed to the appropriate infections.

Gamma Globulin

 

a fraction of globulins in blood plasma containing the most antibodies. In comparison with other protein fractions of the blood, gamma globulin has the slowest electrophoretic mobility. Gamma globulin is obtained either from the blood of donors or from blood from the placenta. So-called specific gamma globulin with an especially high content of antibodies to specific pathogens is isolated from the serum of humans or animals that have been immunized with the corresponding antigens. For example, anti-whooping-cough gamma globulin is prepared from the serum of humans hyperimmunized with whooping-cough vaccine; antirabies gamma globulin comes from the serum of horses hyperimmunized against rabies. Concentrated solutions of gamma globulin contain considerably more antibodies than the initial serums. In the USSR gamma globulin is produced in the form of a 10 percent solution (introduced intramuscularly). Gamma globulin is used for prevention and treatment of infectious diseases mainly in children (measles, whooping cough, poliomyelitis, epidemic hepatitis, and other diseases). Gamma globulin also has a certain nonspecific (stimulating) effect and for this reason it is prescribed for children with chronic inflammations, decline in appetite, and so on.

gamma globulin

[′gam·ə ′gläb·yə·lən]
(immunology)
Any of the serum proteins with antibody activity.
References in periodicals archive ?
According to the method proposed, for the isolation of trypsin-like proteinases inhibitor we used the wastes of the Ist stage (II+III) of industrial production of gamma globulin from human blood that contained a significant amount of the inhibitor mentioned (Divocha, Mykhalchuk, and Gozhenko, 2006b; Divocha and Mikelashvyly, 2001).
Rapid procedure for estimation of total proteins, true albumin, total globulins, alpha globulins, beta globulins and gamma globulins in 1.
Although the urge to medically-manage the disease did not dissipate, as indicated by the emphasis in 1953 on gamma globulin, the successful introduction of the Kenny method in Manitoba led to an important shift, namely the growing emphasis on patient care and nurses.
The most effective method is with IV gamma globulin proteins in the blood plasma - containing anti-antibodies which bind to the harmful antibodies, leaving them unable to complete their attack.
A recent telephone survey of several pharmacies in our fair city, occasioned by the need for a shot of gamma globulin just before heading to a more primitive area of the world, revealed that this old standby for travelers appears to not be as readily available as it once was.
Interest in gamma globulin therapy is limited in the U.
Based on calculations of TP and the albumin fraction obtained by the biuret method and the BCG method, respectively, 5 protein fractions were identified in the electrophoretogram: prealbumin, albumin, alpha globulin, beta globulin, and gamma globulin (Fig 2).
In all experiments, Endosulfan intoxication led to the significant depletion in total protein, albumin, gamma globulin and a-gamma globulin, with elevation in albumin/globulin ratio.
2) Normal ESR (<10 mm/h) 1/4 11/12 Normal creatinine blood level 5/5 11/13 (62-106 [micro]mol/L) Normal sodium blood level 2/4 10/13 (136-144 mmol/L) Elevated AST (>35 IU/L) 4/5 8/13 Mean AST (U/L) 123 254 Elevated ALT (>45 IU/L) 5/5 8/13 Mean ALT (U/L) ([paragraphs]) 185 (71-374) 354 (55-1,368) Elevated GGT (>55 IU/L) 2/5 3/13 Elevated total serum protein 0/5 0/12 concentration (>80 g/L) Elevated gamma globulin 2/5 5/12 concentration (>13 g/L) Characteristic Indeterminate No.
Intravenous gamma globulin is employed as a lower-risk alternative to plasma exchange.
Serum electrophoresis demonstrated a monoclonal spike in the gamma globulin region.
Intravenous gamma globulin therapy plus corticosteroids reduced circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines in children with Kawasaki disease more effectively than IVGG alone, said Dr.