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see nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an anatomically isolated cluster of nerve cells (neurons), nerve fibers, and tissues, found in many invertebrates, all vertebrates, and man. In vertebrates, ganglia are located along the nerve stems.

Intervertebral ganglia, ganglia near the vertebrae, prevertebral ganglia, and ganglia enclosed in the thickness of the walls of the internal organs are topographically distinguished from each other. The intervertebral ganglia and similar ganglia are made up of sensory pseudo-unipolar neurons. Other ganglia are part of the peripheral sector of the autonomous nervous system and are mainly clusters of effector multipolar autonomous neurons, including sensory and association neurons. The clusters of neurons in each ganglion are surrounded by a layer of satellite cells, outside of which there is a thin capsule of connective tissue. Between the groups of neurons there are thicker connective tissue layers forming the connective tissue base, or stroma, of the ganglion. On the outside the ganglion is covered by a fibrous capsule, from which blood vessels reach the ganglion by way of the connective tissue layers. The synapses (nerve fibers that form the end, or terminal, contacts) lead to the bodies and branches of the autonomic neurons. In invertebrates, the ganglia arecoordinating centers carrying out the functions of a central nervous system. By means of reciprocal connections the ganglia in invertebrates form a single system that corresponds in its arrangement to the overall structure of their bodies.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A group of nerve cell bodies, usually located outside the brain and spinal cord.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


1. an encapsulated collection of nerve-cell bodies, usually located outside the brain and spinal cord
2. a cystic tumour on a tendon sheath or joint capsule
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
There are two ways surgery can be used to remove a ganglion cyst Open surgery where the surgeon makes a medium-sized cut, usually about 5cm (2in) long, over the site of the affected joint or tendon and the cyst is removed.
The Sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) is a triangular shaped parasympathetic ganglion which is located in the pterygopalatine fossa about 5 mm in size, anterior to the pterygoid canal and posterior to the middle turbinate8.
(3,5-8) Modified criteria evolved gradually, primarily because of a series of papers coauthored by Meier-Ruge in the mid-1990s that clarified in detail how enzyme histochemistry should be performed and ganglion cells counted.
Choromytilus chorus has ganglion and nerve structures that are innervating important organs, as such as the pedal ganglion with the anterior muscles of the byssus retractor and muscles of the foot.
The term "ganglion vertebrale" was listed under the heading "ganglion cervical medium" without further explanation.
An ultrasound-guided stellate ganglion block was performed with the patient in a 45-degree semi-Fowler's position.
No polygonal or columnar cells typically seen in paragangliomas were noted, and the presence of ganglion cells excluded schwannoma and neurofibroma.
Ganglion cyst is a benign soft tissue lesion that usually is found near joints most notable wrist, hand, and feet.
Ganglion cysts typically originate from connective tissue such as joint capsules and tendon sheaths, and less commonly within bone.
Intra-articular ganglion cyst of the knee was first reported by Caan (2) in 1924, who incidentally found a ganglion cyst of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) at autopsy.