A single-stage removal of thoracic dumbbell tumors from a posterior approach with costotransversectomy only (71,72), and with subsequent instrumentation has been described for schwannomas, neurofibromas, and ganglioneuromas
. For resection of the extraspinal component, simple enucleation without thoracotomy can be performed.
was first described by Loretz in 1870 (8).
Ganglioneuroblastomas are intermediate tumors with malignant potential that may demonstrate distant metastases, while ganglioneuromas
Also, in another work, CD57 was immunohistochemically stained in 100% of poorly differentiated neuroblastoma, 96% of differentiated neuroblastoma/ganglioneuroblastoma, and 93% of ganglioneuroma
. Moreover, in the same study 100% of bone marrow metastases were stained with CD57-specific antibodies .
of the stomach is extremely unusual, with only six cases previously reported.
Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma and ganglioneuroma
are neural tumors with varying maturity levels derived from neural crest cells that form the sympathetic nervous system.
 first reported this tumor as ganglioneuroma
in 1957, and Kepes and Zacharias  named this tumor "gangliocytic paraganglioma" in 1971.
The International Neuroblastoma Pathology Classification (INPC) distinguishes four pathological groups according to the different proportion of ganglion and Schwann cells: neuroblastoma (Schwannian stroma-poor, undifferentiated/poorly, differentiated/differentiating), ganglioneuroblastoma intermixed (Schwannian stroma-rich), ganglioneuroma
(Schwannian stroma-dominant), and ganglioneuroblastoma nodular (composite Schwannian stromarich/stroma-dominant/stroma-poor) .
Histopathology showed ganglioneuroma
with no malignancy or neuroblastic elements seen.
Posterior mediastinal neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroma
, neurogenic cyst, meningeal cyst and Bochdalek hernia may also form similar radiological findings.
Parapharyngeal involvement of a ganglioneuroma
is extremely rare.
The differential diagnoses include benign neurofibroma, fibrosarcoma, liposarcoma, ganglioneuroma
, hydatid cyst, hematoma, and connective tissue diseases .