garden city


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Garden City.

1 City (1990 pop. 7,410), Chatham co., SE Ga., a port of entry, distribution center, and industrial city on the Savannah River; inc. 1939 as Industrial City Gardens, renamed 1941. The city's container terminal, one of largest in the United States, is a major component of the Port of Savannah. Paper, gypsum board, roofing, and jet aircraft are manufactured.

City (1990 pop. 24,097), seat of Finney co., SW Kans., on the Arkansas River; inc. 1887. A trade center in an irrigated farm and dairy region growing wheat, sugar beets, and alfalfa, it has a gas and an oil field, cattle feedlots, and hide-processing and meatpacking plants. Farm machinery, cultured marble, and fertilizers are produced. The city has an agricultural experiment station, a zoo, and a wild game refuge.

2 City (1990 pop. 31,846), Wayne co., SE Mich., a suburb of Detroit; inc. as a city 1934. Chiefly residential but with a noted population decline, the city produces gauge systems and aluminum extrusions.

3 Village (1990 pop. 21,686), Nassau co., SE N.Y., on Long Island; inc. 1919. It is a high-income residential community, with printing, publishing, and retailing as the major industries. Garden City was founded in 1869 and planned by the merchant Alexander StewartStewart, Alexander Turney,
1803–76, American merchant, b. Lisburn, Co. Antrim, Ireland. Arriving in New York c.1820, he started in business in 1823 by selling Irish laces.
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. In 1927, Charles LindberghLindbergh, Charles Augustus,
1902–74, American aviator who made the first solo, nonstop transatlantic flight, b. Detroit; son of Charles A. Lindbergh (1859–1924). He left the Univ. of Wisconsin (1922) to study flying.
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 began his historic transatlantic flight from the nearby former Roosevelt Field. Adelphi Univ. and Nassau Community College are in the city, as is the Museums at Mitchel complex, including a children's and an aviation museum.


garden city,

an ideal, self-contained community of predetermined area and population surrounded by a greenbelt. As formulated by Sir Ebenezer HowardHoward, Sir Ebenezer,
1850–1928, English town planner, principal founder of the English garden-city movement. His To-morrow: a Peaceful Path to Real Reform (1898), reissued as Garden Cities of To-morrow
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, the garden city was intended to bring together the economic and cultural advantages of both city and country living, with land ownership vested in the community, while at the same time discouraging metropolitan sprawl and industrial centralization. The open layout of the garden city has had a great influence on the development of modern city planning.

The garden city was foreshadowed in the writings of Robert OwenOwen, Robert,
1771–1858, British social reformer and socialist, pioneer in the cooperative movement. The son of a saddler, he had little formal education but was a zealous reader.
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, Charles FourierFourier, Charles
, 1772–1837, French social philosopher. From a bourgeois family, he condemned existing institutions and evolved a kind of utopian socialism. In Théorie des quatre mouvements
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, and James Silk Buckingham, and in the planned industrial communities of Saltaire (1851), Bournville (1879), and Port Sunlight (1887) in England. The term garden city was introduced in Howard's book To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform (1898); it was revised (1902) under the title Garden Cities of To-morrow (reedited by F. J. Osborn, 1946). Howard organized the Garden-City Association (1899) in England and secured backing for the establishment of Letchworth (1903), designed by the architects Barry Parker and Raymond UnwinUnwin, Sir Raymond
, 1863–1940, English architect and town planner. He designed the first English garden city near Letchworth, the New Earwick development in Yorkshire, and Hampstead Garden near London. He lectured on housing and city planning at the Univ.
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, and Welwyn Garden City (1920), designed by Louis de Soissons. Neither community, however, was an entirely self-contained garden city.

The idea spread rapidly to Europe and the United States, but it commonly resulted in residential suburbssuburb,
a community in an outlying section of a city or, more commonly, a nearby, politically separate municipality with social and economic ties to the central city. In the 20th cent.
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 of individually owned homes. Under the auspices of the Regional Planning Association of America, the garden-city idea was more fully realized in the community of Radburn, N.J. (1928–32) outside New York City designed by Clarence SteinStein, Clarence,
1882–1975, American architect, b. New York City, studied architecture at Columbia and the École des Beaux-Arts. Stein worked in the office of Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, where he assisted in the planning of the San Diego World's Fair (1915).
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 and Henry WrightWright, Henry,
1878–1936, American landscape architect and community planner, b. Lawrence, Kans., studied architecture at the Univ. of Pennsylvania. He was widely recognized as a leader in the movement for the building of better communities.
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. Most of these satellite towns, however, failed to attain Howard's ideal, since local industries were unable to provide employment for the inhabitants, many of whom commuted to work in larger centers. The congestion and destruction accompanying World War II greatly stimulated the garden-city movement, especially in Great Britain, where the passage of the New Towns Act in 1946 led to the development of more than a dozen new communities based on Howard's idea. The idea was revived in Britain on a smaller scale in 2014 as part of attempt to ease a housing shortage.

Bibliography

See F. J. Osborn, Green-Belt Cities: The British Contribution (1946). M. H. Smith, History of Garden City (1963); W. L. Creese, The Search for Environment (1966).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

Garden city

An idea put forward by Ebenezer Howard (1902) which suggested building medium-size communities of about 32,000 people, each complete with its own facilities and industries, and a planned layout surrounded by open countryside. Houses were grouped so they opened onto their own gardens. This concept can be seen in variations throughout history, including Broadacre City, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Garden City

 

a model city plan developed at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century in England. The idea of building garden cities arose as a result of the drastic deterioration of sanitary conditions in major capitalist cities. This idea may be regarded as an attempt to implement the Utopian socialists’ projects for overcoming the opposition between city and country.

The English sociologist and architect E. Howard set forth the basic organizational principles of garden cities. In contrast to great cities, Howard proposed the building of small cities covering about 400 hectares and surrounded by a belt of parks and gardens of about 2.000 ha. These cities were to have a limited population (30.000–35,000). who would be assured the comforts of urban life and a sense of contact with nature. Larger centers were to be made up of groups of small cities. The first garden city. Letchworth (R. Unwin. architect), was built 55 km from London in 1902. In 1920 Welwyn Garden City (L. de Soissons, architect) was built 32 km from London and its planning and construction received general recognition.

The concept of garden cities gained support in a number of nations, including Russia, where in the second decade of the 20th century an attempt was made to build a garden city in Kratovo. 40 km from Moscow, for employees of the Mos-cow-Raizan’ Railroad (V. N. Semenov, architect). Under capitalism, however, the idea of garden cities failed to receive significant development. In Soviet city planning the concept of the garden city has been realized in the laying out of parks (both in residential areas and in public centers and suburban zones) and in the concern with preserving the natural landscape. This has improved the architectural appearance of cities and has facilitated the development of pleasant conditions in which people can live and work.

REFERENCES

Ikonnikov, A. V. Sovremennaia arkhitektura Anglii, Leningrad. 1958.
Howard, E. Tomorrow. London. 1898.
Howard. E. Garden Cities of Tomorrow. London. 1902. In Russian translation: Goroda budushchego. St. Petersburg, 1911.

S. O. KHAN-MAGOMEDOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

garden city

A residential development having parking areas; esp. planned to provide considerable open space that is well planted with trees and shrubs.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

garden city

Brit a planned town of limited size with broad streets and spacious layout, containing trees and open spaces and surrounded by a rural belt
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The 2-hectare Garden City serves as the municipality's showcase area on the advancement of its local cutflower industry.
I got the opportunity to work with Garden City back then, which at the time was the very first mixed use facility with offices, residences and shopping mall in Kenya.
Designed to make urban living a dream, the residential towers within Manhattan Garden City are connected via a 720-meter shaded garden walkway, making it the perfect address for professionals, students, and anyone who craves to live highly efficient lifestyles.
Both the USO and The Garden City Hotel have longevity and have successfully reinvented themselves to stand the test of time.
Floating hotel pods and an innovation area for start-up businesses would also be included as well as the Garden City's very own beach.
This issue has adversely affected the market price of Garden City plots and shattered the confidence of the people who have invested their earnings in the scheme.
Construction started on the Garden City facility in October 2015, with the first load of milk delivered in late September 2017.
An altercation reportedly started after the student, Rasool Samir, was approached by Broncbuster Athletic Association member Jim Howard, the Garden City Telegram reported.
* Bagels and a Hole Lot More signed a 2,500 s/f 10-year-lease atThe Point at Garden City Park.
DEVELOPERS who want to build more than 400 houses on farm land on the edge of Coventry say they are inspired by the garden city concept first thought up more than 100 years ago.
IN 1898 Ebenezer Howard's reforming Garden City concept was for new-build town clusters planned to capture the benefit from inevitable rises in land prices, with open space securing healthy living and working environments for future generations rather than slums, dirt and decline.
AFAR.REACHING plan to create a PS6 billion garden city in the heart of the Black Country has been unveiled at the MIPIM international property conference.