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Garden City.1 City (1990 pop. 7,410), Chatham co., SE Ga., a port of entry, distribution center, and industrial city on the Savannah River; inc. 1939 as Industrial City Gardens, renamed 1941. The city's container terminal, one of largest in the United States, is a major component of the Port of Savannah. Paper, gypsum board, roofing, and jet aircraft are manufactured.
City (1990 pop. 24,097), seat of Finney co., SW Kans., on the Arkansas River; inc. 1887. A trade center in an irrigated farm and dairy region growing wheat, sugar beets, and alfalfa, it has a gas and an oil field, cattle feedlots, and hide-processing and meatpacking plants. Farm machinery, cultured marble, and fertilizers are produced. The city has an agricultural experiment station, a zoo, and a wild game refuge.
2 City (1990 pop. 31,846), Wayne co., SE Mich., a suburb of Detroit; inc. as a city 1934. Chiefly residential but with a noted population decline, the city produces gauge systems and aluminum extrusions.
3 Village (1990 pop. 21,686), Nassau co., SE N.Y., on Long Island; inc. 1919. It is a high-income residential community, with printing, publishing, and retailing as the major industries. Garden City was founded in 1869 and planned by the merchant Alexander StewartStewart, Alexander Turney,
1803–76, American merchant, b. Lisburn, Co. Antrim, Ireland. Arriving in New York c.1820, he started in business in 1823 by selling Irish laces.
..... Click the link for more information. . In 1927, Charles LindberghLindbergh, Charles Augustus,
1902–74, American aviator who made the first solo, nonstop transatlantic flight, b. Detroit; son of Charles A. Lindbergh (1859–1924). He left the Univ. of Wisconsin (1922) to study flying.
..... Click the link for more information. began his historic transatlantic flight from the nearby former Roosevelt Field. Adelphi Univ. and Nassau Community College are in the city, as is the Museums at Mitchel complex, including a children's and an aviation museum.
garden city,an ideal, self-contained community of predetermined area and population surrounded by a greenbelt. As formulated by Sir Ebenezer HowardHoward, Sir Ebenezer,
1850–1928, English town planner, principal founder of the English garden-city movement. His To-morrow: a Peaceful Path to Real Reform (1898), reissued as Garden Cities of To-morrow
..... Click the link for more information. , the garden city was intended to bring together the economic and cultural advantages of both city and country living, with land ownership vested in the community, while at the same time discouraging metropolitan sprawl and industrial centralization. The open layout of the garden city has had a great influence on the development of modern city planning.
The garden city was foreshadowed in the writings of Robert OwenOwen, Robert,
1771–1858, British social reformer and socialist, pioneer in the cooperative movement. The son of a saddler, he had little formal education but was a zealous reader.
..... Click the link for more information. , Charles FourierFourier, Charles
, 1772–1837, French social philosopher. From a bourgeois family, he condemned existing institutions and evolved a kind of utopian socialism. In Théorie des quatre mouvements
..... Click the link for more information. , and James Silk Buckingham, and in the planned industrial communities of Saltaire (1851), Bournville (1879), and Port Sunlight (1887) in England. The term garden city was introduced in Howard's book To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform (1898); it was revised (1902) under the title Garden Cities of To-morrow (reedited by F. J. Osborn, 1946). Howard organized the Garden-City Association (1899) in England and secured backing for the establishment of Letchworth (1903), designed by the architects Barry Parker and Raymond UnwinUnwin, Sir Raymond
, 1863–1940, English architect and town planner. He designed the first English garden city near Letchworth, the New Earwick development in Yorkshire, and Hampstead Garden near London. He lectured on housing and city planning at the Univ.
..... Click the link for more information. , and Welwyn Garden City (1920), designed by Louis de Soissons. Neither community, however, was an entirely self-contained garden city.
The idea spread rapidly to Europe and the United States, but it commonly resulted in residential suburbssuburb,
a community in an outlying section of a city or, more commonly, a nearby, politically separate municipality with social and economic ties to the central city. In the 20th cent.
..... Click the link for more information. of individually owned homes. Under the auspices of the Regional Planning Association of America, the garden-city idea was more fully realized in the community of Radburn, N.J. (1928–32) outside New York City designed by Clarence SteinStein, Clarence,
1882–1975, American architect, b. New York City, studied architecture at Columbia and the École des Beaux-Arts. Stein worked in the office of Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, where he assisted in the planning of the San Diego World's Fair (1915).
..... Click the link for more information. and Henry WrightWright, Henry,
1878–1936, American landscape architect and community planner, b. Lawrence, Kans., studied architecture at the Univ. of Pennsylvania. He was widely recognized as a leader in the movement for the building of better communities.
..... Click the link for more information. . Most of these satellite towns, however, failed to attain Howard's ideal, since local industries were unable to provide employment for the inhabitants, many of whom commuted to work in larger centers. The congestion and destruction accompanying World War II greatly stimulated the garden-city movement, especially in Great Britain, where the passage of the New Towns Act in 1946 led to the development of more than a dozen new communities based on Howard's idea. The idea was revived in Britain on a smaller scale in 2014 as part of attempt to ease a housing shortage.
See F. J. Osborn, Green-Belt Cities: The British Contribution (1946). M. H. Smith, History of Garden City (1963); W. L. Creese, The Search for Environment (1966).
a model city plan developed at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century in England. The idea of building garden cities arose as a result of the drastic deterioration of sanitary conditions in major capitalist cities. This idea may be regarded as an attempt to implement the Utopian socialists’ projects for overcoming the opposition between city and country.
The English sociologist and architect E. Howard set forth the basic organizational principles of garden cities. In contrast to great cities, Howard proposed the building of small cities covering about 400 hectares and surrounded by a belt of parks and gardens of about 2.000 ha. These cities were to have a limited population (30.000–35,000). who would be assured the comforts of urban life and a sense of contact with nature. Larger centers were to be made up of groups of small cities. The first garden city. Letchworth (R. Unwin. architect), was built 55 km from London in 1902. In 1920 Welwyn Garden City (L. de Soissons, architect) was built 32 km from London and its planning and construction received general recognition.
The concept of garden cities gained support in a number of nations, including Russia, where in the second decade of the 20th century an attempt was made to build a garden city in Kratovo. 40 km from Moscow, for employees of the Mos-cow-Raizan’ Railroad (V. N. Semenov, architect). Under capitalism, however, the idea of garden cities failed to receive significant development. In Soviet city planning the concept of the garden city has been realized in the laying out of parks (both in residential areas and in public centers and suburban zones) and in the concern with preserving the natural landscape. This has improved the architectural appearance of cities and has facilitated the development of pleasant conditions in which people can live and work.
REFERENCESIkonnikov, A. V. Sovremennaia arkhitektura Anglii, Leningrad. 1958.
Howard, E. Tomorrow. London. 1898.
Howard. E. Garden Cities of Tomorrow. London. 1902. In Russian translation: Goroda budushchego. St. Petersburg, 1911.
S. O. KHAN-MAGOMEDOV