gas, fuel

gas, fuel,

gaseous substance that burns in air and releases enough heat to be useful as a fuel, while also remaining sufficiently stable at ordinary temperatures to permit long-term storage without deterioration or undue hazard. It is advantageous if a fuel gas is readily transportable through pipes and is easily liquefied. Practically all fuel gases meet the first condition, and some meet the second as well. Natural gasnatural gas,
natural mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons found issuing from the ground or obtained from specially driven wells. The composition of natural gas varies in different localities.
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, which occurs alone and in conjunction with petroleum deposits, is an excellent fuel gas in wide commercial use. Liquefied petroleum gasliquefied petroleum gas
or LPG,
mixture of gases, chiefly propane and butane, produced commercially from petroleum and stored under pressure to keep it in a liquid state.
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 is a manufactured mixture of flammable gases that is easily stored in its liquefied condition. Oil gasoil gas,
any of a group of fuel gases produced from oil by exposing it to high temperatures. High-Btu oil gas is so called because of its high heating value; it is often used to supplement natural gas during periods of high demand.
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 is a type of gas made by applying heat to various petroleum distillates. Its principal use is as a supplement to natural gas during periods of heavy demand. Coal gascoal gas,
gas obtained in the destructive distillation of soft coal, as a byproduct in the preparation of coke. Its composition varies, but in general it is made up largely of hydrogen and methane with small amounts of other hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (a poisonous gas),
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 may be any of a variety of gases produced by heating coal in the absence of air and driving off the volatile constituents. It is not as high in fuel value as other gases and often contains tars, light oils, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide. Producer gasproducer gas,
fuel gas consisting chiefly of carbon monoxide and nitrogen. It is prepared in a furnace or generator in which air is forced upward through a burning fuel of coal or coke. Although the fuel is introduced through the top, no air is admitted there.
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 is made by forcing a mixture of air and steam through burning coal or coke. Water gaswater gas,
colorless poisonous gas that burns with an intensely hot, bluish (nearly colorless) flame. The gas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen with very small amounts of other gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, and is almost entirely combustible as a result.
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, or blue gas, which burns with a bright blue flame, is made by passing steam over glowing coke.
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