where [[eta].sub.act] is activation voltage, [[alpha].sub.c] is load transport coefficient of the cathode side, F is the Faraday constant, R is the universal gas constant
, T is fuel cell operating temperature,
Q and R are the activation energy and gas constant
of the solder.
where constant [B.sub.T] = RT/[b.sub.T], which is related to the adsorption heat, R is the gas constant
(8.314 J/mol K), T (K) is absolute temperature in Kelvin, [b.sub.T] (J/mol) is the Temkin isotherm constant, which is the variation of adsorption energy and [K.sub.T] is the equilibrium binding constant corresponding to the maximum binding energy.
where [E.sub.a] is the activation energy of diffusion, R is the ideal gas constant
, T is the given temperature, and [T.sub.ref] is is a reference temperature.
(2000) in Their Fundamental Equation for Dry Air Quantity Symbol Value Universal molar [[bar.R].sup.Lem] 8.314510 gas constant
kJ/(kmol*K) Specific gas [R.sup.Lem] 0.287117 constant kJ/(kg*K) Molar mass [M.sup.Lem] 28.9586 kg/kmol Maxcondentherm [[bar.[rho]].sub.j] 10.4477 molar density mol/[dm.sup.3] Maxcondentherm [T.sub.j] 132.6312 K temperature The dimensionless form of the fundamental equation reads
NOMENCLATURE [C.sub.1] constant defined by Equations (8) or (9) ([Pa.sup.-1]) [C.sub.2] constant defined by Equations (8) or (10) ([Pa.sup.-1]) D diffusion coefficient of gas in tube ([m.sup.2]/s) L length of the collector tube (m) M molecular weight (kg/mol) N number of moles (mol) p pressure (Pa) Q gas flow rate (mol/s) r internal radius of tube (m) R universal gas constant
(J/mol K) t time (s) T absolute temperature (K) V volume of the system ([m.sup.3]) x position within the collector tube (m) Greek Symbols [eta] dynamic viscosity of the gas (kg/m s) [[lambda].sub.n] eigenvalue in Equation (17) [tau] dimensionless time defined by Equation (18) (-)
By comparison with the theory of elasticity, it is proposed that [C.sub.1] = 0.5NRT, where N = crosslink density, R = gas constant
and T = absolute temperature.
(Where R is the gas constant
(R=1.987x10-3 kcal/mol/K) and T is the absolute temperature in Kelvin as T=298 K)
For gases the accepted difference between molar isobaric heat capacity and molar isometric heat capacity is the ideal gas constant
Where k 2 is the pseudo second order rate constant, A is pre-exponential factor of the Arrhenius equation, E a is the activation energy of the reaction, R is gas constant
(8.314 Jmol -1 K -1 ), T is absolute temperature in K, C i is initial concentration before adsorption and C f is concentration left in solution after adsorption.
where [C.sub.A] and [C.sub.B] are the concentrations (mol/[m.sup.3]) of species in the reactant side, A is the pre- exponential factor ([s.sup.-1]), [E.sub.a] is activation energy (J [mol.sup.-1]) and R is universal gas constant
(J [mol.sup.-1] [K.sup.-1]).
In this equation, A is the pre-exponential factor [E.sub.A] is the activation energy, R is the molar gas constant
and T is the ageing temperature.