borealis, the STG and portions of connecting nerves are located within the anterior aorta, one of the main arteries connecting to the heart (Maynard and Dando, 1974; Steinacker, 1978), and injection of neuroactive substances into the pericardial cavity, which is several centimeters from the stomach, has been shown to modify the activity of gastric mill neurons in lobsters (Heinzel, 1988; Turrigiano and Selverston, 1990).
Abbreviations: dgn, dorsal gastric nerve; dvn, dorsal ventricular nerve; EJP, excitatory junctional potential; GABA, [gamma]-aminobutyric acid; gm4, gastric mill 4 muscle; lvn, lateral ventricular nerve; LC/MS, reversed-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; MPN, modulatory proctolin neuron; POs, pericardial organs; STG.
major observed in this study was in process of moulting and some internal structure of the foregut was not clearly visible, evidence of a well-developed gastric mill was observed (Figure 4).
Complex ossicles appear compounding the gastric mill. The lateral teeth and a strong and calcified medial, as well as other important ossicles are observed in the foregut of the stomach (Figure 7a).
rectum juvenile I the lateral and medial teeth of the gastric mill are more specialized than that of the megalopa (Figure 7b) resembling adults crab of brachyura previously described in other studies (Meiss and Norman, 1977; Skilleter and Anderson, 1986; Martin et al., 1998; Brosing et al., 2002).
Understanding the gastric mill structure of a macrophagous shrimp Metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius).