Endoscopy

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Endoscopy

 

examination by means of an optical instrument, or endoscope, of hollow organs (for example, the esophagus— esophagoscopy) and body cavities (for example, the abdominal cavity—laparoscopy). Endoscopes are introduced through natural openings (as in bronchoscopy, proctoscopy, or cystoscopy) or through surgical incisions (as in mediastinoscopy). Endoscopy is performed under local or general anesthesia.

The first attempts to examine the urinary bladder and other hollow organs were made as early as the 19th century, but the inadequacy of the endoscopes limited development of the procedures. The possibilities of endoscopy have greatly increased since the second half of the 20th century, with the development of glass-fiber light guides and of instruments of fiber optics based on such light guides. Examination of almost all organs has become possible, and the illumination of the examined object has increased. Conditions for photographing and filming (endophotography and endocinematography) have improved, and it is now possible to make monochromatic and color videotape recordings (modifications of standard cameras and motion-picture cameras are used).

Documentation of the results of endoscopic examination have made possible objective study of the dynamics of pathological processes occurring in any organ. Modern endoscopy plays a special role in diagnosing the early stages of many diseases. The procedure is often combined with endoscopic biopsy, therapeutic measures, and catheterization. Endoscopic offices and departments have been established in many large medical institutions, and some physicians now specialize in endoscopy.

REFERENCES

Lukomskii, G. I., and Iu. E. Berezov. Endoskopicheskaia tekhnika v khirurgii. Moscow, 1967.
Loginov, A. S. Laparoskopiia v klinike vnutrennikh boleznei. Moscow, 1969.
Sokolov, L. K. Atlas endoskopii zheludka i dvenadtsatiperstnoi kishki. Moscow, 1975.

V. I. FEDCHENKO

References in periodicals archive ?
Ng, "Feasibility of per-oral cholecystoscopy and advanced gallbladder interventions after EUS-guided gallbladder stenting (with video)," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 2016.
Kobayashi et al., "Usefulness of a traction method using dental floss and a hemoclip for gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection: a propensity score matching analysis (with videos)," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol.
The study participants were all patients who underwent complete upper gastrointestinal endoscopy during the study period January 2000-December 2010.
In this regard, in addition to the standards on endoscopy training and practice defined by international organizations such as the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE) and the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES), the current status should be assessed with post-graduate seminars and annual scientific meetings, as well as establishing plans and programs for the future (19).
Benjamin, "Small bowel obstruction and the Garren-Edwards[R] gastric bubble: an iatrogenic bezoar," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol.
Patients included in this study were aged 40-60 years old, with CTP score B or C presented for elective gastrointestinal endoscopy.
Hopkins, "Prospective audit of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in two regions of England: safety, staffing, and sedation methods," Gut, vol.
Radiological features often overlap, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy has a limited role because of intramural location.
Davila et al., "ASGE guideline: the role of ERCP in diseases of the biliary tract and the pancreas," Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol.
Appropriateness of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in children: A retrospective study.

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