While the pathogenesis of DGP remains unclear, it is believed that neuropathy, hyperglycemia, changes in serum gastrointestinal hormones
, microvascular disease, and metabolic disorders contribute to this condition.,,,, In recent years, research has found that H.
It was acknowledged that gastrointestinal hormones
play important role in the regulation of gastrointestinal function [7, 8].
It has been demonstrated that psychological stimulation elicits delayed gastric emptying, circulating gastrointestinal hormone
abnormalities (Guo et al., 2001; Liu et al., 204; Zou et al., 2004).
Serum gastrointestinal hormone
levels: After 14 days of feeding, the serum MOT and GAS levels of both groups rose, with significant intra-group and inter-group differences.
Enteral nutrition helps maintain the structural and functional integrities of the intestinal muco- sa, and the irritation of food on intestinal mucous membrane is conducive to promoting the secre- tion of gastrointestinal hormones
, gallbladder contractibility and gastrointestinal peristalsis as well as protecting the intestinal barrier function.19
Kretowski, "The role of gastrointestinal hormones
in the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes," Przeglad Gastroenterologiczny, vol.
Parasympathomimetics, synthetic gastrointestinal stimulants, adrenergic blockers, and multiple gastrointestinal hormones
have not been effective in inducting adequate bowel function.
also lower food intake; this influence is known as the "hypothesis of gastrointestinal control of food intake" [8, 9].
(30) In addition to GIP and GLP-1, many gastrointestinal hormones
, neuropeptides, cytokines, and chemokines are substrates for DPP-4.
Given that many patients with diabetes significantly improve immediately after bariatric surgery, even before weight loss occurs, it is possible that improved insulin resistance might be independent of weight loss and could result from changes in gastrointestinal hormones
and regulatory peptides.
The 54 chapters in this medical review begin with a case study of a patient and describe the physiology of the thyroid and adrenals, female and male reproduction, posterior pituitary hormones, pancreas, and gastrointestinal hormones
. Originally published as Endocrinology at a glance in 1994, the second edition adds chapters on obesity and osteoporosis.