Hedge boson force is incompatible to gauge boson force field.
At zero temperature or extremely high pressure, gauge boson force field undergoes a quantum space phase transition to "hedge boson force field", consisting of a vacuum core surrounded by a hedge boson shell, like a bubble with boundary.
Fermions constitute the matter in the universe and the gauge bosons
carry various forces or interactions.
He chronologically traces the history of the science in order to give readers a basic understanding of lepton, quarks, and gauge bosons
, the elementary building blocks underlying atomic structure.
The Standard Model suggests the forces experienced between charged electrons and protons and between elementary particles of quarks and leptons is due to the rapid exchange of "messenger particles," the gauge bosons
5 on the logarithmic scale and it becomes clear that this range and as well as the masses of the electron, muon, pion and gauge bosons are in proximity of the zeros of the above considered sine function (see Figure 4).
2] and included additionally the gauge bosons due to their special importance (78 particles altogether).
Based on Table 3, Figure 3 shows the distribution of mesons, but Figure 4 shows the distribution of baryons, mesons, leptons and gauge bosons
over the 1/4 logarithmic S-intervals in the range of 0 to 12 logarithmic units.