gelatin

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gelatin

or

animal jelly,

foodstuff obtained from connective tissue (found in hoofs, bones, tendons, ligaments, and cartilage) of vertebrate animals by the action of boiling water or dilute acid. It is largely composed of denatured collagencollagen
, any of a group of proteins found in skin, ligaments, tendons, bone and cartilage, and other connective tissue. Cells called fibroblasts form the various fibers in connective tissue in the body.
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, a protein particularly rich in the amino acids proline and hydroxyproline. The process of manufacture is a complex one that involves removing foreign substances, boiling the material (usually in distilled water in aluminum vessels to prevent contamination), and purifying it of all chemicals used in freeing the gelatin from the connective tissues. The final product in its purest form is brittle, transparent, colorless, tasteless, and odorless and has the distinguishing property of dissolving in hot water and congealing when cold. In contact with cold water it takes up from 5 to 10 times its own weight and swells to an elastic, transparent mass. Gelatin, being readily digested and absorbed, is a good food for children and invalids. It is important in fine cookery as a vehicle for other materials, in the form of jellied soups, molded meats and salads, and frozen desserts. Preparations of it are used in the home manufacture of jam, jellies, and preserves to ensure jellification of fruit juices. It is used in the drying and preserving of fruits and meats, in the glazing of coffee, and in the preparation of powdered milk and other powdered foods. Bakeries use it in making meringues, eclairs, and other delicacies. In confectionery making it is used as the basis of taffy, nougat, marshmallows, and fondant. Ice cream manufacture employs it to maintain a permanent emulsion of other ingredients and thus to give body to the finished product. In scientific processes gelatin is widely employed, being used in electrotyping, photography, waterproofing, and dyeing, and in coating microscopic slides. It is used as a culture medium for bacteriological research and also to make coatings for pills and capsules, for court plaster, and for some surgical dressings. It affords a base for ointments and pastes, such as toothpaste; it is an emulsifying agent useful in making liquid combinations and various sprays. In its less pure forms gelatin is known as glue and size. Vegetable gelatin, or agaragar
, product obtained from several species of red algae, or seaweed, chiefly from the Ceylon, or Jaffna, moss (Gracilaria lichenoides) and species of Gelidium, harvested in eastern Asia and California.
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, is derived from East Indian seaweeds.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Gelatin

 

(gelatine), a mixture of protein substances of animal origin.

Gelatin is prepared from bones, tendons, and cartilage by prolonged boiling in water. In this process collagen, a component of connective tissue, becomes gluten. The resulting solution is evaporated, clarified, and chilled until it is converted to a gel, which is cut in pieces and dried. Gelatin is produced in sheet or powdered form. Finished dry gelatin is tasteless, odorless, transparent, and almost colorless or slightly yellow. It swells greatly in cold water and dilute acids, but does not dissolve. Upon heating, the swollen gelatin dissolves, forming a sticky solution that hardens to a gel. It is used in medicine and biology (as styptic or nutrient media), in pharmacy (the manufacture of capsules, suppositories, and so forth), in the food industry (production of gelatin, jelly, marmalade, and other confectionery products), in photography and cinematography (preparation of emulsions in the light-sensitive layer of cinema film, photographic paper, and X-ray film), and in industry (the sizing of high-grade paper; the manufacture of paper money, paints, artificial pearls, and other goods).

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

gelatin

[′jel·ət·ən]
(materials)
(organic chemistry)
A protein derived from the skin, white connective tissue, and bones of animals; used as a food and in photography, the plastics industry, metallurgy, and pharmaceuticals.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

gelatine

, gelatin
1. a colourless or yellowish water-soluble protein prepared by boiling animal hides and bones: used in foods, glue, photographic emulsions, etc.
2. any of various substances that resemble gelatine
3. a translucent substance used for colour effects in theatrical lighting
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Many studies have reported the development of gelatin crosslinking techniques and the production of insoluble gelatin-based networks; however, most studies make use of toxic compounds to promote the crosslinking of gelatins, including formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde [7,8].
Amin, "RPHPLC method using 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate incorporated with normalization technique in principal component analysis to differentiate the bovine, porcine and fish gelatins," Food Chemistry, vol.
Previous studies have shown that the amino acid profiles and film properties of different gelatin sources varied, most especially methionine and histidine [4].
Properties of gelatins from skins of fish--black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and red tilapia (Oreochromis nilotica).
In general, Muslim jurists share a common ideologythat gelatin derived from slaughtered and permitted animals is permissible (halal).
demonstrated that application of UVB to gelatin films greatly increased gel strength and viscosity [24].
These coatings might be made from gelatin extracted from the silvery skins of seagoing fish, such as Alaskan Pollock.
McHugh and her colleagues at the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, showed that gelatin recovered from fish skins can be processed into thin, pliable sheets, called films.
To prepare orange and green layers: In separate bowls, dissolve orange and lime gelatins each in 1 cup boiling water.
FibroGen's recombinant collagens and gelatins address several promising market opportunities.
Since General Foods, the category leader, introduced sugar-free Jell-O brand gelatins in 1983, the category has seen more activity than it had in nearly a decade.