gender


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Related to gender: Gender roles

gender

In many other languages, especially the Romance languages (such as French, Spanish, and Italian), a large number of nouns are coded as being either feminine or masculine.
This used to be the case in Old English as well, but in modern English only certain nouns that describe a person who performs an action are inflected for gender. This is usually achieved by changing the end of the word to a feminine suffix, such as “-ess,” “-ine,” and “-trix.” Words are less commonly changed to specifically reflect masculine gender, but the few that do use the suffixes “-er” or “-or.”
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gender

[Lat. genus=kind], in grammar, subclassification of nouns or nounlike words in which the members of the subclass have characteristic features of agreement with other words. The term gender is not usually considered to include the classification of numbernumber,
entity describing the magnitude or position of a mathematical object or extensions of these concepts. The Natural Numbers

Cardinal numbers describe the size of a collection of objects; two such collections have the same (cardinal) number of objects if their
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. In French, for example, there are two genders, feminine and masculine, marked by the form of the articles la and le [both: the]. Most French nouns referring to males are masculine (le garcon [the boy]), and most referring to females are feminine (la fille [the girl]), thus conforming to natural gender. Other words are placed in either gender, e.g., le jardin [the garden] and la table [the table], being instances of grammatical gender. In German, Russian, and Latin there are three genders, called masculine, feminine, and neuter. Scandinavian and Dutch languages have in addition to these three a "common" gender, which combines, and often distinguishes between, masculine and feminine. A genderlike distinction between animate and inanimate is widespread, e.g., in Algonquian languages of North America and the Andamanese of the Bay of Bengal. Some Bantu languages have 20 genderlike noun classes. English nouns may be divided into gender classes according to the personal pronouns they take. Nouns referring to males take he and nouns referring to females take she. Most English nouns referring to objects that cannot be classified by sex take the pronoun it, although exceptions exist; ships, for example, are sometimes referred to as she. The grammatical device of concord, or agreement, is bound up with gender distinctions. By it one word bears a formal signal to show its relationship to the word it accompanies or modifies; thus, in la viande, the form of la shows that it is related to a word of the feminine gender class, and it may be said to agree with, or be in concord with, viande. While in most Indo-European languages gender involves nouns, adjectives, and pronouns, in Semitic langauges and some Slavic languages even verbal forms must agree with the gender of their subjects. Although gender is present in many languages, it is far from universal. In English a few words retain gender inflection (e.g., actress, executrix), but since the 12th to 15th cent. English has dropped most of the gender distinctions characteristic of its ancestor languages.

gender

  1. (common usage) the distinction between males and females according to anatomical sex.
  2. (sociological usage) a social division frequently based on, but not necessarily coincidental with, anatomical sex. Thus, sociological usage of the term gender can be at odds with everyday usage.
Sociologists and social psychologists argue that while sex refers to the biological characteristics by which human beings are categorized as ‘male’, ‘female’, or in rare instances ‘hermaphrodite’ (in which the biological characteristics of both sexes are actually or apparently combined), gender refers to the social and social-psychological attributes by which human beings are categorized as ‘masculine’, ‘feminine’ or ‘androgynous’ (in which the social-psychological characteristics of both genders are intentionally or unintentionally combined). Many sociologists stress that within sociological discourse gender should be used when referring to the socially-created division of society into those who are masculine and those who are feminine. Whereas ‘male’ and ‘female’ are terms reserved for biological differences between men and women and boys and girls, ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ are reserved for culturally-imposed behavioural and temperamental traits deemed socially appropriate to the sexes. These traits are learnt via a complex and continuing process of SOCIALIZATION.

Anthropologists (e.g. Margaret MEAD) and psychologists, as well as sociologists, have stressed that gender is not biologically determined but socially and culturally defined. Gender is seen as culturally and historically relative, i.e. the meaning, interpretation and expression of gender varies both within and between cultures, and is subject to historical modification. Social factors such as class, age, race and ethnicity also shape the specific meaning, expression and experience of gender, underlining the fact that gender cannot be equated in any simplistic way with sex or SEXUALITY. see FEMINIST THEORY.

gender

[′jen·dər]
(electricity)
The classification of a connector as female or male.
References in periodicals archive ?
Obstetricians can help to break the cycle of inappropriate gender assignment by correctly using the terms "gender" and "sex assigned at birth." One opportunity for addressing patients' questions about fetal gender might be to avoid the term "gender" altogether when discussing fetal sex assigned at birth, emphasizing instead what fetal ultrasound is actually able to do: Give us information about the appearance of external genitalia to help predict what sex will be assigned at birth.
This gender bias of associating effective leadership to the male is not confined to Eastern conservative societies but is also common in developed Western countries.
'Considering that in the past period media trainings were conducted and other joint activities on the topic of gender equality, there is a positive shift in respect of these standards in the media, the use of gender sensitive language, giving importance to issues related to domestic violence and violence against women,' said Filipovic-HadA3/4iabdic.
Additionally, this year also marked the presence of South Africa and other Asian countries such as India, Pakistan, S.Korea, Japan, China to voice their support for gender equality.
Gender diverse: A term used to describe people with gender behaviors, appearances or identities that are incongruent with those culturally assigned to their birth sex; gender-diverse individuals may refer to themselves with terms such as transgender, nonbinary, genderqueer, gender fluid, gender creative, gender independent or noncisgender.
The topics covered included: gender stereotypes, gender statistics, gender budgeting, womens political participation, womens economic empowerment, gender-based violence, results-oriented management of projects, gender analysis and indicators, Kyrgyzstans national action plans in the gender sphere, the study of international documents that support gender equality such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, UNSC resolution 1325 and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
The analytical and empirical work on gender also reveals that there is much heterogeneity among women and that their social positions depend not just on their relations with men but are interconnected with their class, ethnicity, geographic location, and age.
He said the main objective of the seminar was to sensitise the women police officers as well their male counterparts about awareness of gender equality at workplace.
Al Merri hailed the Global Gender Circle as one of the key initiatives launched by the UAE Gender Balance Council with the goal of supporting the global gender agenda and SDG 5 -- 'achieving gender equality and empower all women and girls'.
Ebikueluye Jessica Bose, Special Assistant, Gender from Esan Central LGA
Sheikha Manal bint Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, President of the UAE Gender Balance Council and wife of His Highness Sheikh Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Presidential Affairs, said: "As part of the Global Gender Circles initiative that we launched in March this year, with the goal of accelerating the United Nations' (UN) Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5 - 'achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls', we were pleased to host the second edition of the series with the IMF.