peritonitis

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peritonitis

(pĕr'ĭtənī`tĭs), acute or chronic inflammation of the peritoneumperitoneum
, multilayered membrane which lines the abdominal cavity, and supports and covers the organs within it. The part of the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity is called the parietal peritoneum.
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, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and surrounds the internal organs. It is caused by invasion of bacterial agents or irritant foreign matter during rupture of an internal organ, by spreading infection from the female genital tract, by penetrating injuries of the abdominal wall, by dissemination of infections through the blood and lymphatic channels, or by accidental pollution during surgery. Typically, peritonitis is a serious complication of another abdominal disorder, such as appendicitis, ulcers, colitis, or rupture of the gall bladder. Severe abdominal pain, vomiting, prostration, and high fever are predominant symptoms. Treatment includes antibiotic therapy and the identification and elimination of the cause of the infection.

Peritonitis

 

inflammation of the peritoneum. Peritonitis can result from a variety of diseases and traumas of the abdominal organs, including acute appendicitis, perforating gastric or duodenal ulcers, and intestinal obstructions; it can also develop from surgical complications. The causative agents are either cocci or Escherichia coli; when peritonitis is caused by the latter, for example, in perforating appendicitis or perforation of an intestinal tumor, the course of the inflammation can be very severe.

Depending on the distribution of the inflammatory process, peritonitis can be circumscribed, that is, confined to some portion of the abdominal cavity, or diffuse. The clinical picture of acute abdomen consists of the symptoms of diffuse peritonitis— namely, sharp abdominal pain, vomiting, retention of stools and gases in a condition called adynamic ileus, local or diffuse rigidity of the abdominal muscles, marked tenderness upon palpation of the anterior abdominal wall, and systemic intoxication as evidenced by fever, increased heart rate, and neutrophilic leukocytosis.

Chronic peritonitis, which is usually encountered in tuberculosis, is rare. The exudative form is attended by an accumulation of exudate in the abdominal cavity, while the adhesive form is marked by the appearance of massive adhesions. Serous, purulent, fibrocaseous, and septic peritonites are distinguished according to the type of exudate. Peritonitis is treated surgically and can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and treatment of acute abdominal conditions.

REFERENCE

Simonian, K. S. Peritonit. Moscow, 1971.

R. B. KAVTELADZE

peritonitis

[‚per·ə·tə′nīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the peritoneum.

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum
References in periodicals archive ?
Planned relaparotomies in the treatment of severe generalized peritonitis from intestinal origin," World.
The common preoperative diagnosis kept were generalized peritonitis (50%), perforation of gastrointestinal tract (40%) and pneumoperitoneum (30%).
13] When considering each risk factor, constructing a contingency table in which the presence or absence of adverse factor and result (death or survival) are considered, OR value obtained allows us to weigh, in descending order of significance, each risk factor as follows: presence of malignancy, age 50 years, generalized peritonitis, presence of fecal peritoneal fluid, and female gender.
The criteria for deciding laparotomy included generalized peritonitis, leakage of faecal contents, bowel loops visible through the wound, haemo-peritoneum on abdominal tapping and signs of internal bleeding.
On initial presentation to an urgent care center, the patient's abdominal examination suggested generalized peritonitis.
The intestinal tract becomes devoid of its normal defenders and many infections may develop, including bowel perforation, generalized peritonitis, sepsis, and -- in the case of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis -- a toxic clinical picture emerges.
Acute generalized peritonitis from ileal perforation is a potentially life-threatening condition.
235-10 Besides its established role in elective upper gastrointestinal surgery it is being attempted in patients with generalized peritonitis and accompanying severe physiological disturbances.
Spontaneous perforation of a pyometra presenting as generalized peritonitis.
patients who are usually not candidates for laparoscopic cholecystectomy include those with generalized peritonitis, septic shock from cholangitis, severe acute pancreatitis, end stage cirrhosis of the liver, and gallbladder cancer.
In other studies, patients with generalized peritonitis range from 30-66%; in our study generalized peritonitis was present in about 66% of the patients.

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